[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients surviving invasive fungal disease (IFD) and needing further antineoplastic chemotherapy are at high risk of recurrent fungal infection. In the absence of randomised controlled trials in this area, secondary prophylactic regimens are diverse. From 448 patients registered with the Multinational Case Registry of Secondary Antifungal Prophylaxis, we performed an analysis of patients receiving caspofungin (CAS) or itraconazole (ITC). All patients had an underlying haematological malignancy and had been diagnosed with an episode of IFD earlier in their course of treatment. Data collected comprised demographics, underlying disease, first episode of IFD, antifungal prophylaxis, incidence and outcome of breakthrough IFD and survival. A total of 75 patients were evaluated, comprising 28 receiving CAS and 47 receiving ITC. Patients in the CAS group were more likely to have had progression of underlying disease (32.1% vs. 8.5%; P=0.028) as well as incomplete response of initial IFD at baseline (85.7% vs. 57.4%; P=0.005). Allogeneic stem cell transplantation was more prevalent in patients receiving CAS (46.4% vs. 14.9%; P=0.010). There was no difference in the occurrence of breakthrough IFD between both groups (32.1% vs. 31.9%). Treatment outcomes for recurrent IFD and overall mortality did not differ between groups. Both ITC and CAS were equally effective in preventing second episodes of IFD. Patients with uncontrolled first IFD, uncontrolled underlying disease or those receiving stem cell transplantation were more likely to have received CAS prophylaxis. Despite antifungal prophylaxis, risk of breakthrough IFD was high in both groups.
International journal of antimicrobial agents 09/2009; 34(5):446-50. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the outcomes of 129 patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and had a history of probable or proven invasive aspergillosis (IA), of whom 57 (44%) received a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Overall, 27 patients with IA progressed after the allo-HSCT (cumulative incidence [CumInc] at 2 years, 22%). The variables that increased the 2-year CumInc of IA progression were (1) longer duration of neutropenia after transplantation; (2) advanced status of the underlying disease; and (3) less than 6 weeks from start of systemic anti-Aspergillus therapy and the allo-HSCT. In addition, (4) conventional myeloablative conditioning increased the risk of progression early after transplantation (before day 30) only, while 3 variables increased the risk beyond day 30 were (5) cytomegalovirus disease; (6) bone marrow or cord blood as source of stem cells; and (7) grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A risk model for progression was generated, defined as low (0-1 risk factors, 6% incidence), intermediate (2-3 risk factors, 27% incidence), or high risk (> or = 3 risk factors, 72% incidence [P < .001]). These findings may help in the interpretation and design of future studies on secondary prophylaxis of IA after an allo-HSCT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with prior or active invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a frequent consideration. We reviewed outcomes of 2319 patients who underwent transplantation between 1992 and 2001 in our institution, among whom 45 patients (1.9%) had a known history of IA before HCT. Posttransplantation IA occurred in 13 of these 45 patients with a pretransplantation history (29%). Nine infections were considered recurrent by anatomic site and timing. Compared with all other patients who received allogeneic HCT during the same period, patients with histories of IA had lower overall survival (56% versus 77%; P =.0001) and higher transplant-related mortality (TRM; 38% versus 21%; P =.0001) 100 days after HCT, associated mainly with IA and other pulmonary complications. Among patients with prior IA, posttransplantation IA occurred more frequently in patients who received <1 month of antifungal therapy before HCT (4/6 versus 6/39; P =.001). The probability of posttransplantation IA and overall survival among patients who received >1 month of antifungal therapy and had resolution of radiographic abnormalities were not different from those of patients without prior IA. Patients with prior IA who received conditioning with total body irradiation (TBI) had higher TRM compared with those who received nonmyeloablative and non-total body irradiation-based regimens (16/31 versus 2/14; P =.024). Thus, the duration of antifungal therapy before transplantation, the resolution of radiographic abnormalities, and conditioning regimens are important variables to consider for minimizing the risk for IA recurrence and TRM after allogeneic HCT.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 07/2004; 10(7):494-503. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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