Toll-like receptor 3 plays a central role in cardiac dysfunction during polymicrobial sepsis.
ABSTRACT To determine the role of Toll-like receptor 3 in cardiac dysfunction during polymicrobial sepsis.
Controlled animal study.
University research laboratory.
Male C57BL/6, wild-type, Toll-like receptor 3-/-.
Myocardial dysfunction is a major consequence of septic shock and contributes to the high mortality of sepsis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a critical role in the pathophysiology of sepsis/septic shock. TLR3 is located in intracellular endosomes, and recognizes double-stranded RNA. This study examined the role of TLR3 in cardiac dysfunction following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis. TLR3 knockout (TLR3-/-, n=12) and age-matched wild-type (n=12) mice were subjected to CLP. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography before and 6 hrs after CLP.
CLP resulted in significant cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased ejection fraction by 25.7% and fractional shortening by 29.8%, respectively. However, TLR3-/- mice showed a maintenance of cardiac function at pre-CLP levels. Wild-type mice showed 50% mortality at 58 hrs and 100% mortality at 154 hrs after CLP. In striking contrast, 70% of TLR3-/- mice survived indefinitely, that is, >200 hrs. TLR3 deficiency significantly decreased CLP-induced cardiac-myocyte apoptosis and attenuated CLP-induced Fas and Fas ligand expression in the myocardium. CLP-activation of TLR4-mediated nuclear factor-κB and Toll/IL-1 receptor-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β-dependant interferon signaling pathways was prevented by TLR3 deficiency. In addition, CLP-increased vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, and neutrophil and macrophage sequestration in the myocardium were also attenuated in septic TLR3-/- mice. More significantly, adoptive transfer of wild-type bone-marrow stromal cells to TLR3-/- mice abolished the cardioprotective effect in sepsis.
These data indicate that TLR3 plays a deleterious role in mediating cardiac dysfunction in sepsis. Thus, modulation of the TLR3 activity may be useful in preventing cardiac dysfunction in sepsis.
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ABSTRACT: Recent data implicate the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) as important steps in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of adult respiratory distress syndrome and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. This study evaluated the effect of immunomodulating polysaccharides on transcription factor activation, cytokine expression, and mortality in a murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. ICR/HSD mice were treated with glucan (50 mg/kg) 1 hour before or 15 minutes after CLP. Liver and lung tissue were harvested at 3 hours and mortality trends were observed for 20 days. CLP increased liver and lung NF-kappa B and NF-IL6 nuclear binding activity as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 6 messenger RNA levels at 3 hours. Pretreatment or posttreatment with glucans inhibited tissue NF-kappa B and NF-IL6 nuclear binding activity and tissue cytokine messenger RNA levels. Prophylaxis with glucan phosphate or scleroglucan increased (P < .001) long-term survival (20% CLP vs 65% glucan phosphate, 75% scleroglucan). Posttreatment with glucan phosphate also increased (P < .05) long-term survival (20% vs 65%). Pretreatment or posttreatment with biologic response modifiers decreased tissue transcription factor nuclear binding activity and cytokine message in liver and lung of septic mice. Inhibiting early transcription factor activation and cytokine message expression correlates with improved outcome in polymicrobial sepsis as denoted by increased long-term survival.Surgery 07/1999; 126(1):54-65. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The nature of myocardial dysfunction during sepsis and septic shock has been investigated for more than half a century. This review traces the evolution of scientific thought regarding this phenomenon during this period with particular emphasis on the current understanding of both the clinical manifestations and the molecular/cellular basis of septic myocardial dysfunction in critically ill patients. Current data suggest, contrary to older literature, that patients with septic shock develop a hyperdynamic circulatory state after fluid resuscitation and maintain this hyperdynamic circulatory state until death or recovery. Overt myocardial depression, as manifested by decreased cardiac output, is decidedly uncommon, even in the preterminal phase. Nonetheless, myocardial depression, as evidenced by biventricular dilation and depression of the ejection fraction, can be demonstrated in most patients with septic shock by using either radionuclide cineangiography or echocardiography. Depression is reversible over the course of 7 to 10 days in survivors. Available evidence suggests that myocardial hypoperfusion is not responsible for septic myocardial depression, because examination of humans with septic shock demonstrates increased myocardial perfusion, and animal models of septic shock appear to maintain myocardial high-energy phosphates. A circulating factor or factors, including the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta, appear to have a significant role in the phenomenon. In addition, septic myocardial depression appears to be mediated in part through combinations of nitric oxide-dependent and -independent alterations of basal and catecholamine-stimulated cardiac myocyte contractility.Current Opinion in Critical Care 11/2002; 8(5):376-88. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factor activation may be a pivotal step in the pathophysiology of sepsis syndrome and adult respiratory distress syndrome. This study investigated the activation of lung nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and nuclear factor interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) and how they correlate to proinflammatory cytokine expression and mortality in a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by CLP. Transcription factor activation was assessed at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 hours after CLP by the electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. Lung cytokine mRNA levels were established by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CLP induced pulmonary NFkappaB activation at 3, 4, and 8 hours (p < 0.05). Lung NFkappaB activation peaked at 3 hours (533% vs. no surgery, 2,900% vs. sham treatment) after CLP. Supershift analysis revealed a predominance of p50 subunits in the lung nuclear extracts of septic mice 3 hours after CLP, indicating the presence of p50 homodimer. In contrast, liver nuclear extracts from septic mice indicated the presence of both p65 and p50 subunits at 3 hours. Lung NF-IL6 activation (p < 0.05) was observed at 4 hours (649% vs. no surgery, 296% vs. sham treatment) and 6 hours after CLP. Lung tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA levels were increased (p < 0.05) at all time intervals after CLP. Lung IL-6 mRNA levels were increased at 3, 6, and 8 hours after CLP. Early activation of lung NFkappaB and NF-IL6 and lung cytokine mRNA expression correlated with mortality in polymicrobial sepsis. Although IL-6 mRNA levels correlated with NFkappaB and NF-IL6 activation, tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA levels did not, in that they preceded transcription factor activation. These data suggest a potential role for NFkappaB and NF-IL6 activation in the initiation and propagation of acute lung injury.The Journal of trauma 04/1999; 46(4):590-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor