Skin cancer is among the most frequent neoplastic malignancies and exposure to UV irradiation is a major risk factor. In addition to topical sunscreens, photoprotection by dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids or polyphenols has been suggested as a means of prevention. Isorenieratene (IR) and dihydroxyisorenieratene (DHIR) are aromatic carotenoids with particular antioxidant properties produced by Brevibacterium linens. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective and antioxidant activities of DHIR and IR in comparison to the nonaromatic carotenoid lutein in human dermal fibroblasts. Incubation of the cells with DHIR and IR significantly decreased the UV-induced formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and formation of DNA strand breaks. Lipid oxidation was lowered as determined by the formation of malondialdehyde as a biomarker. Both aromatic carotenoids also prevented oxidatively generated damage to DNA as demonstrated by a decrease in DNA strand breaks associated with the formation of oxidized DNA bases. These data highlight the multifunctional photoprotective properties of aromatic carotenoids, which may be suitable natural compounds for the prevention of skin cancer.
"Moreover, this compound also suppressed MMP-9 expression triggered by UV irradiation (Figure 2(c)) without altering the viability of HaCaT cells (Figure 2(d) right panel), indicating that lutein is also able to protect against UV irradiation-mediated skin irritation. It has been previously reported that lutein can decrease the edematous cutaneous response as illustrated by the reduction of the UVB-induced increase of ear bifold thickening , that aromatic carotenoids can prevent UV-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts , and that lutein can suppress melanogenesis . In agreement with these studies, our data further confirm that lutein can be used as a skin protective agent with anti-inflammatory functions. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL-) 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 from interferon- γ /tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-) α -treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP-) 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin.
Mediators of Inflammation 03/2013; 2013(6):787042. DOI:10.1155/2013/787042 · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbial aryl carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients. Dufossé L. 1st MDPI e-Conference on Foods: Bioactives, Processing, Quality and Nutrition. 10-12 April 2013. http://www.sciforum.net/conf/bpqn2013/.
Cite this paper as: Dufossé, L. Microbial aryl carotenoids as bioactive food ingredients. In Proceedings of the F. Bioact. Process. Qual. & Nutr., 10-12 April 2013; Sciforum Electronic Conferences Series, 2013.
1st MDPI e-Conference on Foods: Bioactives, Processing, Quality and Nutrition. 10-12 April 2013., e-Conference; 04/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotenoids are biosynthesized by all photosynthetic plants, protists, and bacteria, as well as some heterotrophic bacteria, some fungi, and some invertebrates. Retinoids are formally diterpenes (C20) because they are composed of four isoprene (C5) units joined in a head-to-tail manner, but they are biosynthetically derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Several prefixes, preceded by the number of the carbon atom(s) that contain the modification, are used for the systematic nomenclature of modified retinoids and carotenoids. Mobilization of retinol to extrahepatic tissues requires the secretion of serum retinol binding protein (RBP4), which is the main carrier in blood. In the blood, free sRBP interacts with a sRBP receptor (RBPR) in the plasma membrane of cells, which is followed by the release of retinol and its uptake into the cells. Alternatively, oxidation of all-trans-retinal to all-transretinoic acid is carried out by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH or RALDH), which are also cytosolic proteins.
Chemical Reviews 11/2013; 114(1). DOI:10.1021/cr400126u · 46.57 Impact Factor
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