3,3 '-Dihydroxyisorenieratene and isorenieratene prevent UV-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts
ABSTRACT Skin cancer is among the most frequent neoplastic malignancies and exposure to UV irradiation is a major risk factor. In addition to topical sunscreens, photoprotection by dietary antioxidants such as carotenoids or polyphenols has been suggested as a means of prevention. Isorenieratene (IR) and dihydroxyisorenieratene (DHIR) are aromatic carotenoids with particular antioxidant properties produced by Brevibacterium linens. The aim of this study was to investigate the photoprotective and antioxidant activities of DHIR and IR in comparison to the nonaromatic carotenoid lutein in human dermal fibroblasts. Incubation of the cells with DHIR and IR significantly decreased the UV-induced formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and formation of DNA strand breaks. Lipid oxidation was lowered as determined by the formation of malondialdehyde as a biomarker. Both aromatic carotenoids also prevented oxidatively generated damage to DNA as demonstrated by a decrease in DNA strand breaks associated with the formation of oxidized DNA bases. These data highlight the multifunctional photoprotective properties of aromatic carotenoids, which may be suitable natural compounds for the prevention of skin cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Four novel compounds were designed by "tailoring" 3,3'-dihydroxyisorenieratene (a natural carotenoid) based on an isoprene unit retention truncation strategy. Among them, the smallest molecule 1 (2,3,6,2',3',6'-hexamethyl-4,4'-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene) was concisely synthesized in a one-pot Stille-Heck tandem sequence, and surfaced as a promising lead molecule in terms of its selective antiproliferative activity mediated by blocking the NCI-H460 cell cycle in G1 phase. Additionally, theoretical calculations and cell uptake experiments indicate that the unique polymethylation pattern of compound 1 significantly induces a conformational change shift out of planarity and increases its cell uptake and metabolic stability. The observation should be helpful to rationally design resveratrol-inspired antiproliferative agents.Chemistry 06/2014; 20(29). DOI:10.1002/chem.201403024 · 5.70 Impact Factor
Chemical Reviews 11/2013; 114(1). DOI:10.1021/cr400126u · 45.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: DNA damage is tightly associated with various biological and pathological processes, such as aging and tumorigenesis. Although detection of DNA damage is attracting increasing attention, only a limited number of methods are available to quantify DNA lesions, and these techniques are tedious or only detect global DNA damage. In this study, we present a high-sensitivity long-run real-time PCR technique for DNA-damage quantification (LORD-Q) in both the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. While most conventional methods are of low-sensitivity or restricted to abundant mitochondrial DNA samples, we established a protocol that enables the accurate sequence-specific quantification of DNA damage in >3-kb probes for any mitochondrial or nuclear DNA sequence. In order to validate the sensitivity of this method, we compared LORD-Q with a previously published qPCR-based method and the standard single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, demonstrating a superior performance of LORD-Q. Exemplarily, we monitored induction of DNA damage and repair processes in human induced pluripotent stem cells and isogenic fibroblasts. Our results suggest that LORD-Q provides a sequence-specific and precise method to quantify DNA damage, thereby allowing the high-throughput assessment of DNA repair, genotoxicity screening and various other processes for a wide range of life science applications.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt1349 · 8.81 Impact Factor