Article

A perspective on mammalian caspases as positive and negative regulators of inflammation.

Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics, The Smurfit Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.
Molecular cell (Impact Factor: 14.61). 05/2012; 46(4):387-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.04.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Members of the caspase family of cysteine proteases coordinate the morphological and biochemical events that typify apoptosis. However, neutralization of caspase activity in mammals fails to block death in response to most proapoptotic stimuli. This is because many cell death triggers provoke mitochondrial dysfunction upstream of caspase activation as a consequence of BAX/BAK channel opening. Although genetic or pharmacological inactivation of caspases fails to block cell death in most instances, it does convert the phenotype from apoptosis to necrosis. This has important implications for how the immune system responds to such cells, as necrotic cells provoke inflammation whereas apoptotic cells typically do not. Here, we propose an alternative perspective on apoptosis-associated caspase function by suggesting that these proteases are activated, not to kill, but to extinguish the proinflammatory properties of dying cells. This perspective unifies the mammalian caspase family as either positive or negative regulators of inflammation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
134 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous factors is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrate that apoptosis-deficient mutants spontaneously develop a necrosis-driven systemic immune response in Drosophila and provide an in vivo model for studying the organismal response to sterile inflammation. Metabolomic analysis of hemolymph from apoptosis-deficient mutants revealed increased sarcosine and reduced S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) levels due to glycine N-methyltransferase (Gnmt) upregulation. We showed that Gnmt was elevated in response to Toll activation induced by the local necrosis of wing epidermal cells. Necrosis-driven inflammatory conditions induced dFoxO hyperactivation, leading to an energy-wasting phenotype. Gnmt was cell-autonomously upregulated by dFoxO in the fat body as a possible rheostat for controlling energy loss, which functioned during fasting as well as inflammatory conditions. We propose that the dFoxO-Gnmt axis is essential for the maintenance of organismal SAM metabolism and energy homeostasis.
    Cell Reports 04/2014; · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are different cellular death programs characterized in organs and tissues as consequence of microbes infection, cell stress, injury, and chemotherapeutics exposure. Dying and death cells release a variety of self-proteins and bioactive chemicals originated from cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. These endogenous factors are named cell death-associated molecular-pattern (CDAMP), damage-associated molecular-pattern (DAMP) molecules, and alarmins. Some of them cooperate or act as important initial or delayed inflammatory mediators upon binding to diverse membrane and cytosolic receptors coupled to signaling pathways for the activation of the inflammasome platforms and NF-κB multiprotein complexes. Current studies show that the nonprotein thiols and thiol-regulating enzymes as well as highly diffusible prooxidant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released together in extracellular inflammatory milieu play essential role in controlling pro- and anti-inflammatory activities of CDAMP/DAMP and alarmins. Here, we provide an overview of these emerging concepts and mechanisms of triggering and maintenance of tissue inflammation under massive death of cells.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:821043. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leptin, a peripheral signal synthetized by the adipocyte to regulate energy metabolism, can also be produced by placenta, where it may work as an autocrine hormone. We have previously demonstrated that leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. In the present work, we aimed to study the molecular mechanisms that mediate the survival effect of leptin in placenta. We used the human placenta choriocarcinoma BeWo and first trimester Swan-71 cell lines, as well as human placental explants. We tested the late phase of apoptosis, triggered by serum deprivation, by studying the activation of Caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. Recombinant human leptin added to BeWo cell line and human placental explants, showed a decrease on Caspase-3 activation. These effects were dose dependent. Maximal effect was achieved at 250 ng leptin/ml. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous leptin expression with 2 µM of an antisense oligonucleotide, reversed Caspase-3 diminution. We also found that the cleavage of Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase-1 (PARP-1) was diminished in the presence of leptin. We analyzed the presence of low DNA fragments, products from apoptotic DNA cleavage. Placental explants cultivated in the absence of serum in the culture media increased the apoptotic cleavage of DNA and this effect was prevented by the addition of 100 ng leptin/ml. Taken together these results reinforce the survival effect exerted by leptin on placental cells. To improve the understanding of leptin mechanism in regulating the process of apoptosis we determined the expression of different intermediaries in the apoptosis cascade. We found that under serum deprivation conditions, leptin increased the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein expression, while downregulated the pro-apoptotic BAX and BID proteins expression in Swan-71 cells and placental explants. In both models leptin augmented BCL-2/BAX ratio. Moreover we have demonstrated that p53, one of the key cell cycle-signaling proteins, is downregulated in the presence of leptin under serum deprivation. On the other hand, we determined that leptin reduced the phosphorylation of Ser-46 p53 that plays a pivotal role for apoptotic signaling by p53. Our data suggest that the observed anti-apoptotic effect of leptin in placenta is in part mediated by the p53 pathway. In conclusion, we provide evidence that demonstrates that leptin is a trophic factor for trophoblastic cells.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99187. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
48 Downloads
Available from
May 29, 2014