Age-associated alteration of oocyte-specific gene expression in polar bodies: potential markers of oocyte competence.
ABSTRACT To confirm that oocyte-specific messenger RNAs are detectable in the polar body (PB) of metaphase II (MII) oocytes and determine the effect of age on oocyte-specific transcript levels.
Hospital-based academic research laboratory.
CD1 female mice.
Aged (40-50 weeks) and young (7-9 weeks) mice were administered pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and hCG. Oocytes were fertilized in vitro to assess fertilization and developmental competence. The MII oocytes were obtained and first PBs were removed. Messenger RNAs from each PB and its sibling oocyte were reverse transcribed and analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Fertilization and developmental rates and expression of six oocyte-specific genes (Bmp15, Gdf9, H1foo, Nlrp5, Tcl1, and Zp3) in PBs and sibling oocytes from young versus aged mice.
Oocytes from aged mice had lower developmental competence. Four genes (H1foo, Nlrp5, Tcl1, and Zp3) were differentially expressed in aged versus young oocytes. All six transcripts were present in PBs from aged and young mice at lower levels than in the sibling oocytes; transcript levels were lower in aged PBs compared with young PBs.
There is a significant difference in the transcript levels of oocyte-specific genes in aged versus young PB that correlates with age-related decreases in oocyte competence. Differences in gene expression in PB may be potential biomarkers of MII oocyte competence.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate whether polar body biopsy can be performed after laser microdissection of the zona pellucida (ZP). Mouse zygotes were allocated randomly to three groups. The zygotes were subjected to laser microdissection of the ZP and polar body biopsy (group 1), laser microdissection alone (group 2), or no treatment (group 3). University-based IVF program. Animal study. A hole was drilled in the ZP of mouse zygotes using a 1.48-micron noncontact diode laser. A microneedle was inserted and the polar body was aspirated. The efficacy of polar body biopsy after laser microdissection of the ZP was evaluated. The laser diode beam allowed for precise drilling of a 14- to 18-micron hole in the ZP. Polar bodies could be aspirated without damaging the zygote and did not disintegrate during the biopsy. Zygotes developed to blastocysts and underwent the same hatching as control zygotes. Lower hatching rates were observed in untreated zygotes. Laser microdissection of the ZP with a noncontact laser system facilitates subsequent polar body biopsy. The use of blunt-ended micropipettes greatly reduces the risk of damage to the zygote or the polar body. This procedure makes polar body biopsy more accurate and effective for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.Fertility and Sterility 03/1998; 69(3):539-42. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The widespread use of a variety of assisted reproductive technologies has removed many of the constraints that previously restricted mammalian reproduction to the period between onset of puberty and reproductive senescence. In vitro embryo production systems now allow oocytes from very young animals to undergo fertilization and form embryos capable of development to normal offspring, albeit at somewhat reduced efficiencies compared to oocytes from adult females. They also can overcome infertility associated with advanced age of animals and women. This review examines oocyte developmental competence as the limiting factor in applications of assisted reproductive technologies for both juvenile and aged females. Age of oocyte donor is a significant factor influencing developmental competence of the oocyte. Age-related abnormalities of oocytes include a) meiotic incompetence or inability to complete meiotic maturation resulting in oocytes incapable of fertilization; b) errors in meiosis that can be compatible with fertilization but lead to genetic abnormalities that compromise embryo viability; and c) cytoplasmic deficiencies that are expressed at several stages of development before or after fertilization. In general, oocytes from juvenile donors and the embryos derived therefrom appear less robust and may be less tolerant to suboptimal handling and in vitro culture conditions than are adult oocytes. Research to identify specific cytoplasmic deficiencies of juvenile oocytes may enable modifications of culture conditions to correct such deficiencies and thus enhance developmental competence. Use of oocytes from aged donors for assisted reproduction can have a variety of applications such as extending the reproductive life of individual old females whose offspring still have high commercial value, and conservation of genetic resources such as rare breeds of livestock and endangered species. In general, female fertility decreases with advancing age. Studies of women in oocyte donation programs have established reduced oocyte competence as the major cause of declining fertility with age, although inadequate endometrial function can also be a contributing factor. Most research has emphasized the importance of chromosomal abnormalities because of the well established increase in aneuploidy with increasing maternal age but little is known about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Research aimed at identifying the specific developmental deficiencies of oocytes from juvenile donors and abnormalities of oocytes from aged females will assist in overcoming present bottlenecks that limit the efficiency of assisted reproduction technologies. Such research will also be crucial to the development of new oocyte-based technologies for overcoming infertility and possibly subverting chromosomal abnormalities in women approaching menopause.Theriogenology 05/2001; 55(6):1303-22. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the influence of the morphology of the first polar body (PB) on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. The morphology of the first PB was assessed in 3177 metaphase II oocytes and classified as: intact and normal size, fragmented, or enlarged size. The rates of fertilization, cleavage, and embryo quality were evaluated on day 2. The rates of fertilization, cleavage, and formation of good quality embryos resulting from the insemination of oocytes with an enlarged first PB (20.7%, 18.7%, and 5.0%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for oocytes with an intact first PB of normal size (70.8%, 62.5%, and 19%, respectively) or a fragmented first PB (69.7%, 60.5%, and 17.1%, respectively). Rates did not differ significantly between oocytes with an intact first PB of normal size and oocytes with a fragmented first PB (P>0.05). The presence of an enlarged PB is related to poorer rates of fertilization, cleavage, and top quality embryos. However, identification of first PB fragmentation does not seem to interfere with ICSI outcomes.International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 12/2008; 104(3):226-9. · 1.41 Impact Factor