A more sensitive pressure-based index to estimate collateral blood supply in case of coronary three-vessel disease.
ABSTRACT With progressive occlusion of a coronary main artery, some anastomotic vessels are recruited in order to supply blood to the ischemic region. This collateral circulation is an important factor in the preservation of the myocardium until reperfusion of the area at risk. An accurate estimation of collateral flow is crucial in surgical bypass planning as it alters the blood flow distribution in the coronary network and can influence the outcome of a given treatment for a given patient. The evaluation of collateral flow is frequently achieved using an index based on pressure measurements. It is named Collateral Flow Index (CFI) and defined as: (P(w)-P(v))/(P(ao)-P(v)), where P(w) is the pressure distal to the thrombosis, P(ao) the aortic pressure and P(v) the central venous pressure. We propose here another index, that is more sensitive to the P(w) value and could thus describe the role of collateral flow with more precision. We illustrate this idea using some clinical pressure measurements in patients with severe coronary disease (stenoses on the left branches and total occlusion of the right coronary artery).
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ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate the applicability of a pressure-flow equation for quantitative calculation of recruitable collateral blood flow at coronary artery occlusion in conscious patients and to investigate the value of that index to predict future ischemic events. Recent experimental studies have indicated that recruitable collateral blood flow at coronary artery occlusion can be expressed as a fraction of normal maximal myocardial blood flow by simultaneous recordings of mean arterial, coronary wedge and central venous pressures, respectively. This index is called the pressure-derived fractional collateral flow and is independent of hemodynamic loading conditions. In 120 patients undergoing elective coronary angioplasty, mean arterial, coronary wedge and central venous pressures were measured at balloon inflations of 2 min. All patients had a recent exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) with positive findings showing clearly distinguishable, reversible ECG abnormalities, enabling recognition of ischemia at balloon inflation. Fractional collateral blood flow at angioplasty was calculated by coronary wedge pressure minus central venous pressure divided by mean arterial pressure minus central venous pressure and correlated to the presence or absence of ischemia at balloon inflation. Ischemic events were monitored during a follow-up period of 6 to 22 months. In 90 of the 120 patients, ischemia was present at balloon inflation, and in 82 of these patients, fractional collateral blood flow was < or = 23%. By contrast, in 29 patients, no ischemia was present, and fractional collateral blood flow was > 24% in all 29. During the follow-up period, 16 patients had an ischemic event. Fifteen of these 16 patients were in the group with insufficient collateral flow (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this study presents the first method for quantitative assessment of recruitable collateral blood flow in humans in the catheterization laboratory. Sufficient and insufficient collateral circulation can be reliably distinguished by this method. Use of this method can also help to provide more insight into the extent and behavior of the collateral circulation for investigational purposes and may have potential clinical implications.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 06/1995; 25(7):1522-8. · 15.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Collateral fractional flow reserve (FFR(coll)) is an index to quantify collateral blood flow, derived from coronary pressure measurements. Although well defined theoretically, its direct validation by myocardial perfusion imaging has not been established so far. Validating this index by myocardial perfusion imaging is the main aim of this study. Twenty-four consecutive patients with stable angina and single left anterior descending artery stenosis underwent simultaneous measurement of aortic pressure (P(a)), coronary wedge pressure (P(w)), and central venous pressure (P(v)) during balloon inflation. FFR(coll) was calculated and compared with the extent and severity of the defect during coronary occlusion using (99m)Tc-sestamibi imaging at balloon inflation of the respective coronary artery. Although the pressure-derived collateral indexes (P(w), P(w)/P(a), and FFR(coll)) ranged widely, they were closely correlated with extent and severity scores of the nuclear occlusion images and superior to the ECG for that purpose. Of all parameters, FFR(coll) correlated best with the severity score at imaging (r=-0.88), followed by the P(w)/P(a) ratio (r=-0.74) or P(w) alone (r=-0.69). FFR(coll), calculated from coronary pressure during balloon occlusion, is highly correlated with the extent and severity of the defect at myocardial perfusion of the territory of the occluded artery and can be used for quantitative assessment of collateral blood flow in conscious humans.Circulation 04/2002; 105(9):1060-5. · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coronary collaterals are an alternative source of blood supply to myocardium jeopardized by ischaemia. Well-developed coronary collateral arteries in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) mitigate myocardial infarcts and improve survival. Collateral arteries preventing myocardial ischaemia during brief vascular occlusion are present in 1/3 of patients with CAD. Among individuals without relevant coronary stenoses, there are preformed collateral arteries preventing myocardial ischaemia in 20-25%. Collateral flow sufficient to prevent myocardial ischaemia during coronary occlusion amounts to double dagger25% of the normal flow through the open vessel. Myocardial infarct size, the most important prognostic determinant after such an event, is the product of coronary artery occlusion time, area at risk for infarction and the inverse of collateral supply. Coronary collateral flow can be assessed only during vascular occlusion of the collateral-receiving artery. The gold standard for coronary collateral assessment is the measurement of intracoronary occlusive pressure- or velocity-derived collateral flow index expressing collateral as a fraction of flow during vessel patency. Approximately one of five patients with CAD cannot be revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting. Therapeutic promotion of collateral growth is a valuable treatment strategy in those patients. Promotion of collateral growth should aim at inducing the development of large conductive collateral arteries (i.e. arteriogenesis) and not so much the sprouting of capillary like vessels (i.e. angiogenesis). Large conductive collateral arteries appear to be effectively promoted via the activation of monocytes/macrophages by means of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or of augmenting coronary flow velocity.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 05/2010; 40(5):465-76. · 3.37 Impact Factor