The impact of media campaigns on smoking cessation activity: a structural vector autoregression analysis.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the effect of tobacco control media campaigns and pharmaceutical company-funded advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on smoking cessation activity.
Multiple time series analysis using structural vector autoregression, January 2002-May 2010.
England and Wales.
Tobacco control campaign data from the Central Office of Information; commercial NRT campaign data; data on calls to the National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking helpline from the Department of Health; point-of-sale data on over-the-counter (OTC) sales of NRT; and prescribing data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a database of UK primary care records.
Monthly calls to the NHS stop smoking helpline and monthly rates of OTC sales and prescribing of NRT.
A 1% increase in tobacco control television ratings (TVRs), a standard measure of advertising exposure, was associated with a statistically significant 0.085% increase in calls in the same month (P = 0.007), and no statistically significant effect in subsequent months. Tobacco control TVRs were not associated with OTC NRT sales or prescribed NRT. NRT advertising TVRs had a significant effect on NRT sales which became non-significant in the seasonally adjusted model, and no significant effect on prescribing or calls.
Tobacco control campaigns appear to be more effective at triggering quitting behaviour than pharmaceutical company NRT campaigns. Any effect of such campaigns on quitting behaviour seems to be restricted to the month of the campaign, suggesting that such campaigns need to be sustained over time.
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about the extent to which quit attempts are planned ahead or initiated immediately following a sudden decision to quit. This is important because if most smokers quit abruptly, rather than plan ahead, this could impact heavily upon recommendations to health care professionals on the kind of smoking cessation advice they deliver to patients. This paper aims to address this gap in knowledge by examining detailed smoking histories taken from smoking and ex-smoking patients. Face-to-face in depth semi-structured interviews. 146 smoking and ex-smoking patients within a family medicine practice were recruited by means of screening 700 consecutive patients (14 years of age and older) and inviting eligible patients to participate. To be eligible, patients had to have smoked a minimum of five cigarettes per day for at least six months in their lives and made at least one serious quit attempt that lasted at least 24 hours. There were no refusals. Ex-smokers (n = 67) were defined as those who had not smoked for six months. The remainder were classified as smokers (n = 79). Participants were asked to describe, in their own words, their most recent quit attempt and whether they had planned the quit attempt in advance, what were the triggers, and how long they abstained. A quit attempt was defined as planned if smokers set a quit date at some future time point. An unplanned quit attempt was defined as a sudden decision not to smoke any more cigarettes including those that might be remaining in the current pack. Information was also collected on methods used to quit and reasons for quitting. A majority (51.6%) of quit attempts were reported as being unplanned. The figure was higher for ex-smokers than for smokers (67.1% v 36.7%, p < 0.001). Most quit attempts were unaided (64%) and made for reasons of health (64%). The finding that so many quit attempts are unprepared suggests that models of smoking cessation should place greater emphasis on the dynamic nature of motivation to quit. This is an area that requires further investigation.Tobacco control 12/2005; 14(6):425-8. · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertising and smoking cessation. Cessation rates in 2001 among a cohort of 2061 smokers who participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation between 1988 and 1993 and completed a follow-up survey in 2001 were merged with 2000-01 television advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. The relative risk for quitting was estimated to be 10% higher for every 5000 units of exposure to state anti-tobacco television advertising over the 2-year period, although this did not quite achieve statistical significance. The association was even larger among those who reported that the level of information in the media about the dangers of smoking had increased 'a lot' between 1993 and 2001 (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.03-1.38). These data are consistent with the finding that increased exposure to state anti-tobacco media increases smoking cessation rates.Health Education Research 07/2006; 21(3):348-54. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While much is known about the economic determinants of tobacco use, very little is known about the economic determinants of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) use. This paper is the first econometric study to examine the impact of advertising on NRT demand. Pooled cross-sectional time-series scanner-based data for 50 major metropolitan markets in the USA covering the period between the second quarter of 1996 and the second quarter of 2002 are used in the analysis. Fixed-effects modeling is employed to estimate the NRT demand equation. The estimates indicate that increased advertising of Nicoderm CQ transdermal patches and Nicotrol transdermal patches increases per-capita sales of established Nicoderm CQ and Nicotrol products, respectively. However, increased advertising of Nicorette polacrilex (gum) was found not to significantly increase sales of established Nicorette products. Moreover, decreases in the price of NRT and increases in the price of cigarettes were found to increase per-capita sales of NRT products. Given the documented efficacy of NRT, measures to increase peoples' awareness of NRT products through advertising, measures to decrease the price of NRT, and measures to increase the price of cigarettes would be effective means to increase the use of NRT, likely leading to decreased cigarette smoking and reductions in the future public health burden caused by tobacco use.Social Science [?] Medicine 06/2005; 60(10):2351-8. · 2.73 Impact Factor