Licensing of killer dendritic cells in mouse and humans: functional similarities between IKDC and human blood γδ T-lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells are characterized by the ability to induce primary antigen-specific immune responses in both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I-restricted CD8 cells and MHC Class II-restricted CD4 cells. This professional antigen presentation function is associated with the up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and Class II MHC. While it has been recognized that several types of innate lymphocytes in mouse and humans can express co-stimulatory molecules and present antigen, the property of antigen presentation to elicit responses in naïve cells has been considered the exclusive domain of the dendritic cell. This concept has been challenged through the description of innate lymphocytes, capable of killing using NK receptors, but also up-regulating co-stimulatory molecules and driving the antigen-specific proliferation of naïve lymphocytes to the same extent as dendritic cells. Interferon (IFN)-γ secreting killer dendritic cells (IKDC) have been described in mice and share immunophenotypic properties of both dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Human blood γδ T-lymphocytes have innate tumor cell killing properties by both antibody-dependent and natural killer receptor-dependent mechanisms. This article reviews data from the authors' own laboratory showing a particular feature in common between the mouse IKDC and human blood γδ T-lymphocytes; namely their requirement for interaction with a target cell for specific licensing for professional antigen presentation.
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ABSTRACT: γδ T cells hold promise for adoptive immunotherapy because of their reactivity to bacteria, viruses, and tumors. However, these cells represent a small fraction (1-5%) of the peripheral T-cell pool and require activation and propagation to achieve clinical benefit. Aminobisphosphonates specifically expand the Vγ9Vδ2 subset of γδ T cells and have been used in clinical trials of cancer where objective responses were detected. The Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor (TCR) heterodimer binds multiple ligands and results in a multivalent attack by a monoclonal T cell population. Alternatively, populations of γδ T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoire could be infused for broad-range specificity. However, this goal has been restricted by a lack of applicable expansion protocols for non-Vγ9Vδ2 cells. Recent advances using immobilized antigens, agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), tumor-derived artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC), or combinations of activating mAbs and aAPC have been successful in expanding gamma delta T cells with oligoclonal or polyclonal TCR repertoires. Immobilized major histocompatibility complex Class-I chain-related A was a stimulus for γδ T cells expressing TCRδ1 isotypes, and plate-bound activating antibodies have expanded Vδ1 and Vδ2 cells ex vivo. Clinically sufficient quantities of TCRδ1, TCRδ2, and TCRδ1(neg)TCRδ2(neg) have been produced following co-culture on aAPC, and these subsets displayed differences in memory phenotype and reactivity to tumors in vitro and in vivo. Gamma delta T cells are also amenable to genetic modification as evidenced by introduction of αβ TCRs, chimeric antigen receptors, and drug-resistance genes. This represents a promising future for the clinical application of oligoclonal or polyclonal γδ T cells in autologous and allogeneic settings that builds on current trials testing the safety and efficacy of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:636.
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ABSTRACT: Human γδ T cells display the principal characteristics of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), in addition to playing a vital role in immunity through cytokine secretion and their cytotoxic activity. However, it is not clear whether γδ T cells perform APC-like functions under pathological conditions. In this study, we showed that, in contrast to peripheral-derived γδ T cells directly isolated from PBMCs of gastric cancer patients, tumor-activated γδ T cells not only killed tumor cells efficiently but also strongly induced primary CD4(+) and CD8(+) αβ T cells proliferation and differentiation. More importantly, they abrogated the immunosuppression induced by CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells and induced the cytotoxic function of CD8(+) αβ T cells from patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, tumor-activated γδ T cells can induce adaptive immune responses through their APC-like functions, and these cells may be a potentially useful tool in the development of tumor vaccines and immunotherapy.Journal of Immunology Research 01/2014; 2014:593562. · 2.93 Impact Factor