Invertebrate FMRFamide Related Peptides.

Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Illinois Box 1651, Edwardsville, IL 62026-1651. .
Protein and Peptide Letters (Impact Factor: 1.74). 05/2012; DOI: 10.2174/0929866511320060005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 1977 the neuropeptide FMRFamide was isolated from the clam, Macrocallista nimbosa. Since then several hundred FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) have been isolated from invertebrate animals. Precursors to the FaRPs likely arose in the cnidarians. With the transition to a bilateral body plan FaRPs became a fixture in the invertebrate phyla. They have come to play a critical role as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. FaRPs regulate a variety of body functions including, feeding, digestion, circulation, reproduction, movement. The evolution of the molecular form and function of these omnipresent peptides will be considered.

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    ABSTRACT: Since the initial characterization of the cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide in the bivalve mollusk Macrocallista nimbosa, a great number of FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have been identified in mollusks. FLPs were initially isolated and molecularly characterized in model mollusks using biochemical methods. The development of recombinant technologies and, more recently, of genomics has boosted knowledge on their diversity in various mollusk classes. Today, mollusk FLPs represent approximately 75 distinct RFamide peptides that appear to result from the expression of only five genes: the FMRFamide-related peptide gene, the LFRFamide gene, the luqin gene, the neuropeptide F gene, and the cholecystokinin/sulfakinin gene. FLPs display a complex spatiotemporal pattern of expression in the central and peripheral nervous system. Working as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or neurohormones, FLPs are involved in the control of a great variety of biological and physiological processes including cardiovascular regulation, osmoregulation, reproduction, digestion, and feeding behavior. From an evolutionary viewpoint, the major challenge will then logically concern the elucidation of the FLP repertoire of orphan mollusk classes and the way they are functionally related. In this respect, deciphering FLP signaling pathways by characterizing the specific receptors these peptides bind remains another exciting objective.
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