Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with local-regional therapy: quantitative volumetric apparent diffusion coefficient maps for assessment of tumor response.
ABSTRACT To evaluate volumetric changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and contrast material enhancement on contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance (MR) images in hepatic arterial and portal venous phases for assessing early response in cholangiocarcinoma treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).
Twenty-nine patients with unresectable cholangiocarcinoma, including 11 men (mean age, 60 years; standard deviation, 16.8) and 18 women (mean age, 63 years; standard deviation, 11.5) were included in this retrospective institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study; informed consent was waived. Sixty-nine TACE procedures were performed during the observational time (range, one to five TACE sessions). No patients received another form of therapy after treatment with TACE. MR Imaging was performed before and 3-4 weeks after TACE, and images were analyzed with a semiautomatic volumetric software package. Patients were stratified as responders and nonresponders on the basis of overall survival (OS) as the primary end point. Differences between responders and nonresponders were analyzed with paired t tests, and OS was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Significant differences were analyzed with the log-rank test.
Mean volumetric ADC increased from 1.54×10(-3) mm2/sec to 1.92×10(-3) mm2/sec (P<.0001), with no significant decrease in mean volumetric enhancement in hepatic arterial (40.6% vs 37.5%, P=.546) and portal venous (79.0% vs 70.0%, P=.105) phases. Patients who demonstrated improved survival of 10 months or more had a significant increase in mean volumetric ADC and volumetric ADC above the threshold level of 1.60×10(-3) mm2/sec (P<.002). Patients with 45% or greater (n=21; log-rank test, P<.02) and 60% or greater (n=12; log-rank test, P<.009) ADC changes for the whole tumor volume demonstrated better OS compared with patients in whom these ADC changes were not achieved.
Patients with percentage tumor volume increase in ADC of 45% or greater and 60% or greater above the threshold level of 1.60×10(-3) mm2/sec had favorable response to therapy and improved survival.
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ABSTRACT: Multidisciplinary cancer clinics may improve patient care. We examined how a single-day multidisciplinary liver clinic (mdlc) affected care recommendations for patients compared with the recommendations provided before presentation to the mdlc. We analyzed the demographic and clinicopathologic data of 343 patients assessed in the Johns Hopkins Liver Tumor Center from 2009 to 2012, comparing imaging and pathology interpretation, diagnosis, and management plan between the outside provider (osp) and the mdlc. Most patients were white (n = 259, 76%); median age was 60 years; and 146 were women (43%). Outside providers referred 182 patients (53%); the rest were self-referred. Patients travelled median of 83.4 miles (interquartile range: 42.7-247 miles). Most had already undergone imaging (n = 338, 99%) and biopsy (n = 194, 57%) at the osp, and a formal management plan had been formulated for about half (n = 168, 49%). Alterations in the interpretation of imaging occurred for 49 patients (18%) and of biopsy for 14 patients (10%). Referral to the mdlc resulted in a change of diagnosis in 26 patients (8%), of management plan in 70 patients (42%), and of tumour resectability in 7 patients (5%). Roughly half the patients (n = 174, 51%) returned for a follow-up, and 154 of the returnees (89%) received treatment, primarily intraarterial therapy (n = 88, 57%), systemic chemotherapy (n = 60, 39%), or liver resection (n = 32, 21%). Enrollment in a clinical trial was proposed to 34 patients (10%), and 21 of the 34 (62%) were accrued. Patient assessment by our multidisciplinary liver clinic had a significant impact on management, resulting in alterations to imaging and pathology interpretation, diagnosis, and management plan. The mdlc is an effective and convenient means of delivering expert opinion about the diagnosis and management of liver tumours.Current Oncology 04/2013; 20(2):e123-31. · 1.63 Impact Factor