Nerve growth factor content is increased in the rectal mucosa of children with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
ABSTRACT The enteric nervous system is a complex network that includes, in the digestive mucosa, neuronal bodies and fibers interacting with the immune system and mucosal mast cells (MC). These interactions involve the secretion of messengers, such as the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), which influence colonic motility and sensitivity, both affected in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that, in children with IBS, colonic mucosal innervation, NGF content, and MC infiltration are altered. We aimed to measure MC infiltration, number of neuronal bodies, distance from MC to nerve fibers, inflammation, and NGF content in rectal mucosa of pediatric patients with IBS as compared with controls.
Rectal biopsies from children (median age: 14 years) with diarrhea-predominant IBS (n = 11) and controls (n = 14) were studied. MC and neuronal mucosal structures were identified by tryptase, CD117 and PGP9.5 immunoreactivity. Inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and lymphocytes) were counted. NGF was quantified in situ by ELISA. Key
No mucosal inflammation was detected in IBS. MC infiltration and number of neuronal bodies were not significantly different between IBS and controls. The distance between MC and nerve fibers was not different in IBS compared with controls (5.2 ± 0.3 vs 5.0 ± 0.3 μm). Number of MC in close proximity to nerve fibers (<5 μm) was not different in the two groups. However, in IBS, NGF content was higher than controls (0.93 ± 0.3 vs 0.62 ± 0.3 pg mg(-1) protein, P < 0.05) and significantly correlated with MC number.
Regardless of inflammation, NGF content is increased in rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant IBS children.
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ABSTRACT: Neuroimmune interactions and inflammation have been proposed as factors involved in sensory-motor dysfunction and symptom generation in adult irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. In children with IBS and healthy controls, we measured ileocolonic mast cell infiltration and fecal calprotectin and evaluated the relationships between these parameters and abdominal pain symptoms and stooling pattern. Irritable bowel syndrome patients diagnosed according to Pediatric Rome III criteria and healthy controls kept a 2-week pain/stooling diary. Ileocolonic mucosal mast cells (MC) and MC in close proximity to nerve fibers (MC-NF) were identified immunohistochemically and quantified. Fecal calprotectin concentration was measured. 21 IBS patients and 10 controls were enrolled. The MC-NF count was significantly higher in the ileum (p = 0.01), right colon (p = 0.04), and left colon (p < 0.001) of IBS patients compared with controls. No differences in fecal calprotectin concentration were noted. Abdominal pain intensity score correlated with ileal MC count (rs = 0.47, p = 0.030) and right colon MC-NF count (rs = 0.52, p = 0.015). In addition, children with IBS with >3 abdominal pain episodes/week had greater ileal (p = 0.002) and right colonic (p = 0.01) MC counts and greater ileal (p = 0.05) and right colonic (p = 0.016) MC-NF counts than children with less frequent pain. No relationship was found between MC and MC-NF and fecal calprotectin or stooling pattern. Mast cells-nerve fibers counts are increased in the ileocolonic mucosa of children with IBS. Mast cells and MC-NF counts are related to the intensity and frequency of abdominal pain.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 11/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Inflammatory and neuroinflammatory processes are increasingly recognized as critical pathophysiologic steps in the development of multiple chronic diseases and in the etiology of persistent pain and depression. Mast cells are immune cells now viewed as cellular sensors in inflammation and immunity. When stimulated, mast cells release an array of mediators to orchestrate an inflammatory response. These mediators can directly initiate tissue responses on resident cells, and may also regulate the activity of other immune cells, including central microglia. New evidence supports the involvement of peripheral and central mast cells in the development of pain processes as well as in the transition from acute, to chronic and neuropathic pain. That behavioral and endocrine states can increase the number and activation of peripheral and brain mast cells suggests that mast cells represent the immune cells that peripherally and centrally coordinate inflammatory processes in neuropsychiatric diseases such as depression and anxiety which are associated with chronic pelvic pain. Given that increasing evidence supports the activated mast cell as a director of common inflammatory pathways/mechanisms contributing to chronic and neuropathic pelvic pain and comorbid neuropsychiatric diseases, mast cells may be considered a viable target for the multifactorial management of both pain and depression.Gynecological Endocrinology 05/2014; · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although animal models of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have provided important insights, there are no models that fully express the features of this complex condition. One alternative approach is the use of human intestinal biopsies obtained during endoscopic procedures to examine peripheral mechanisms in this disorder. These studies have served to confirm the existence of peripheral pathways in humans with IBS and have provided many new mechanistic insights. Two general approaches have been employed; one approach has been to examine the biological activity of mediators within the mucosal tissue of IBS patients and the other has been to examine changes in the structural properties of key signaling pathways contained within the biopsies. Using these approaches, important changes have been discovered involving the enteric nervous system and the extrinsic sensory pathway (dorsal root ganglia neurons), the immune system, and epithelial signaling in IBS patients compared to healthy subjects. This review will systematically explore these mechanistic pathways, highlight the implications of these novel findings and discuss some of the important limitations of this approach.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 02/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor