A systematic review and narrative synthesis to determine the effectiveness of contraception service interventions for young people delivered in health care premises was undertaken. We searched 12 key health and medical databases, reference lists of included papers and systematic reviews and cited reference searches on included articles. All retrieved literature was screened at title and abstract levels, and relevant articles were taken through to full paper appraisal. Data relating to study design, outcomes and quality were extracted by one reviewer and independently checked by a second reviewer. We included interventions that consisted of contraceptive service provision for young people, and also interventions to encourage young people to use existing contraceptive services. The searches identified 23 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The papers focused on: new adolescent services, outreach to existing services, advanced provision of emergency contraception, condom/contraceptive provision and advice and repeat pregnancy prevention. The literature in general is not well developed in terms of good quality effectiveness studies and key outcome measures. However, it is possible to make recommendations in terms of outreach versus targeted young people's services in health care settings, advanced provision of emergency contraception and long-acting reversible contraception to prevent repeat adolescent pregnancy.
"Several recent systematic reviews have attempted to answer these questions, though none have looked specifically at contraceptive interventions for adolescents in developing countries that include contraceptive use outcomes. Blank et al. looked at clinic-based contraceptive services for young people in developed countries, while Guse et al.'s review of digital media interventions for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (SRH) included studies mostly from developed countries  . Another systematic review of interventions to prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies limited inclusion to randomized controlled trials, which drew an evidence base comprised almost entirely of studies from developed countries; the review also included several programs that did not offer contraceptive information or services . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective (s):
Many adolescents in developing countries have an unmet need for contraception, which can contribute to poor reproductive health outcomes. Recent literature reviews have not adequately captured effective contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to identify and evaluate the existing evidence base on contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in LMICs that report an impact on contraceptive behavior outcomes.
Structured literature review of published and unpublished papers about contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in LMICs that report an impact on contraceptive behavior outcomes.
We identify common elements used by programs that measured an impact on adolescent contraceptive behaviors and summarize outcomes from 15 studies that met inclusion criteria. Effective programs generally combined numerous program approaches and addressed both user and service provision issues. Overall, few rigorous studies have been conducted in LMICs that measure contraceptive behaviors. Few interventions reach the young, the out of school and other vulnerable groups of adolescents.
Though the evidence base is weak, there are promising foundations for adolescent contraceptive interventions in nearly every region of the world. We offer recommendations for programmers and identify gaps in the evidence base to guide future research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unprotected sex is a major risk factor for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas of the world due to the prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest contraceptive methods and the earliest method for preventing the spread of HIV. When used correctly and consistently, condoms can provide dual protection, i.e., against both pregnancy and HIV/STI.
We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use. We were interested in identifying interventions associated with effective condom use as measured with biological assessments, which can provide objective evidence of protection.
Through September 2013, we searched computerized databases for comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use: MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, OpenGrey, COPAC, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. We wrote to investigators for missing data.
Studies could be either randomized or nonrandomized. They examined a behavioral intervention for improving condom use. The comparison could be another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. The experimental intervention had an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve condom use. It addressed preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The focus could be on male or female condoms and targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. Potential participants included heterosexual women and heterosexual men.Studies had to provide data from test results or records on a biological outcome: pregnancy, HIV/STI, or presence of semen as assessed with a biological marker, e.g., prostate-specific antigen. We did not include self-reported data on protected or unprotected sex, due to the limitations of recall and social desirability bias. Outcomes were measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention started.
Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. For the dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated using a fixed-effect model. Cluster randomized trials used various methods of accounting for the clustering, such as multilevel modeling. Most reports did not provide information to calculate the effective sample size. Therefore, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. No meta-analysis was conducted due to differences in interventions and outcome measures.
Seven studies met our eligibility criteria. All were randomized controlled trials; six assigned clusters and one randomized individuals. Sample sizes for the cluster-randomized trials ranged from 2157 to 15,614; the number of clusters ranged from 18 to 70. Four trials took place in African countries, two in the USA, and one in England. Three were based mainly in schools, two were in community settings, one took place during military training, and one was clinic-based.Five studies provided data on pregnancy, either from pregnancy tests or national records of abortions and live births. Four trials assessed the incidence or prevalence of HIV and HSV-2. Three trials examined other STI. The trials showed or reported no significant difference between study groups for pregnancy or HIV, but favorable effects were evident for some STI. Two showed a lower incidence of HSV-2 for the behavioral-intervention group compared to the usual-care group, with reported adjusted rate ratios (ARR) of 0.65 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.97) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.97), while HIV did not differ significantly. One also reported lower syphilis incidence and gonorrhea prevalence for the behavioral intervention plus STI management compared to the usual-care group. The reported ARR were 0.58 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.96) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.70), respectively. Another study reported a negative effect on gonorrhea for young women in the intervention group versus the control group (ARR 1.93; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.71). The difference occurred among those with only one year of the intervention.
We found few studies and little clinical evidence of effectiveness for interventions promoting condom use for dual protection. We did not find favorable results for pregnancy or HIV, and only found some for other STI. The overall quality of evidence was moderate to low; losses to follow up were high. Effective interventions for improving condom use are needed to prevent pregnancy and HIV/STI transmission. Interventions should be feasible for resource-limited settings and tested using valid and reliable outcome measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual-method contraception refers to using condoms as well as another modern method of contraception. The latter (usually non-barrier) method is commonly hormonal (e.g., oral contraceptives) or a non-hormonal intrauterine device. Use of two methods can better prevent pregnancy and the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to single-method use. Unprotected sex increases risk for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas due to the prevalence and incidence of HIV/STI. Millions of women, especially in lower-resource areas, also have an unmet need for protection against unintended pregnancy.
We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving use of dual methods of contraception. Dual-method use refers to using condoms as well as another modern contraceptive method. Our intent was to identify effective interventions for preventing pregnancy as well as HIV/STI transmission.
Through January 2014, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, COPAC, and Open Grey. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP for current trials and trials with relevant data or reports. We examined reference lists of pertinent papers, including review articles, for additional reports.
Studies could be either randomized or non-randomized. They examined a behavioral intervention with an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve the use of dual methods, i.e., condoms and another modern contraceptive. The intervention had to address preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The program or service could be targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. The comparison condition could be another behavioral intervention to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention.Studies had to report use of dual methods, i.e., condoms plus another modern contraceptive method. We focused on the investigator's assessment of consistent dual-method use or use at last sex. Outcomes had to be measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention began.
Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. For the dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated using a fixed-effect model. Where studies used adjusted analysis, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. No meta-analysis was conducted due to differences in interventions and outcome measures.
We identified four studies that met the inclusion criteria: three randomized controlled trials and a pilot study for one of the included trials. The interventions differed markedly: computer-delivered, individually tailored sessions; phone counseling added to clinic counseling; and case management plus a peer-leadership program. The latter study, which addressed multiple risks, showed an effect on contraceptive use. Compared to the control group, the intervention group was more likely to report consistent dual-method use, i.e., oral contraceptives and condoms. The reported relative risk was 1.58 at 12 months (95% CI 1.03 to 2.43) and 1.36 at 24 months (95% CI 1.01 to 1.85). The related pilot study showed more reporting of consistent dual-method use for the intervention group compared to the control group (reported P value = 0.06); the investigators used a higher alpha (P < 0.10) for this pilot study. The other two trials did not show any significant difference between the study groups in reported dual-method use or in test results for pregnancy or STIs at 12 or 24 months.
We found few behavioral interventions for improving dual-method contraceptive use and little evidence of effectiveness. A multifaceted program showed some effect but only had self-reported outcomes. Two trials were more applicable to clinical settings and had objective outcomes measures, but neither showed any effect. The included studies had adequate information on intervention fidelity and sufficient follow-up periods for change to occur. However, the overall quality of evidence was considered low. Two trials had design limitations and two had high losses to follow up, as often occurs in contraceptive trials. Good quality studies are still needed of carefully designed and implemented programs or services.
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