Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan, .
Urological Research (Impact Factor: 1.39). 05/2012; 40(6). DOI: 10.1007/s00240-012-0483-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm(2)) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1 % ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30-100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.

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Available from: Saeed Khan, Apr 04, 2015
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    • "Therefore, drugs with multiple targets, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic properties are an obvious choice for the development of antiurolithiatic drugs. Medicinal plants possess multiple constituents that work in a synergistic manner with minimum side effects and are accessible to a large population (Khan et al., 2012). It can be postulated that interventions with natural antioxidants could mitigate free radical toxicity, which "
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    ABSTRACT: Urolithiasis is a multifaceted process, progressing from urine supersaturation to the formation of mature renal calculi. Calcium oxalate, the main component of kidney stones, has toxicological effects on renal epithelial cells. Some medicinal plants have shown pharmacological effects against renal lithiasis, such as Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. et Grev) Spring, a plant empirically used in Mexico for its diuretic and antilithiasic activity. The plant was identified and ground, and a chloroform extract (CE) was obtained. Urolithiasis was induced in Wistar female rats by administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride for 21 days. Urolithiasis rats were treated with the CE (50 mg/kg) for 21 days. Osmolality, creatinine, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in blood and urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and electrolytic and water balances were calculated. Urinary oxalic acid concentration was measured. Apoptosis, lipoperoxidation, ROS and p-amino hippuric acid were determined in cortical tissue. Urolithiasis rats showed a decrease of urinary flow, GFR, electrolytic balance, renal tubular secretion and ATP concentration and increase of urinary oxalic acid, lipoperoxidation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cortical tissue. After treatment with the CE, urinary flow rate, GFR and renal tubular secretion levels were recovered; on the other hand, serum creatinine and urinary oxalic acid decreased on day 21. CE of Selaginella lepidophylla prevented the damage caused by lithiasic process by improving the active secretion in the proximal tubules, counteracting the ROS and lipoperoxidation effects by oxalate and decreased the OAT3 expression on kidney.
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    ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants are generating an ever-increasing amount of interest due to the effectiveness, low cost and minimal side-effects associated with drugs derived from them. Holarrhena antidysenterica (syn. H. pubescens) WALL., belonging to the family Apocynaceae, is commended for the medicinal applications of its stem bark, leaves and seeds in Ayurveda. During the past century, studies on the phytochemical and pharmacological nature of the plant have yielded important results regarding the chemical constituents present and have also verified the traditionally claimed properties associated with the plant viz. analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-amoebic, anti-inflammatory and anti-haemorrhoidal activities. Moreover, recently some other properties have also been discovered viz. anti-malarial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-urolithic, anti-mutagenic, CNS-stimulating, Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitory and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. This review discusses the findings of studies on the aforementioned properties of the plant in detail and 68 alkaloids isolated from various parts of plant to justify its widespread use in the treatment of a variety of diseases and suggests future lines of research.
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