Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica.
ABSTRACT Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm(2)) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1 % ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30-100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.
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ABSTRACT: Urolithiasis is a multifaceted process, progressing from urine supersaturation to the formation of mature renal calculi. Calcium oxalate, the main component of kidney stones, has toxicological effects on renal epithelial cells. Some medicinal plants have shown pharmacological effects against renal lithiasis, such as Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. et Grev) Spring, a plant empirically used in Mexico for its diuretic and antilithiasic activity. The plant was identified and ground, and a chloroform extract (CE) was obtained. Urolithiasis was induced in Wistar female rats by administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride for 21 days. Urolithiasis rats were treated with the CE (50 mg/kg) for 21 days. Osmolality, creatinine, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in blood and urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and electrolytic and water balances were calculated. Urinary oxalic acid concentration was measured. Apoptosis, lipoperoxidation, ROS and p-amino hippuric acid were determined in cortical tissue. Urolithiasis rats showed a decrease of urinary flow, GFR, electrolytic balance, renal tubular secretion and ATP concentration and increase of urinary oxalic acid, lipoperoxidation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cortical tissue. After treatment with the CE, urinary flow rate, GFR and renal tubular secretion levels were recovered; on the other hand, serum creatinine and urinary oxalic acid decreased on day 21. CE of Selaginella lepidophylla prevented the damage caused by lithiasic process by improving the active secretion in the proximal tubules, counteracting the ROS and lipoperoxidation effects by oxalate and decreased the OAT3 expression on kidney.Urolithiasis. 03/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To study the effect of banana cultivar Monthan corm extract for its antilithiatic potential under in vitro condition. Methods: Banana cultivar Monthan corm extracts of different solvents with varying polarity were tested for its antilithiatic potential. Kidney stone formation was studied under in vitro conditions using three critical assays such as crystal nucleation, aggregation and growth. The effect of extract on the formation and inhibition of crystals were observed spectrophotometrically and the results were presented in this paper. Results: The results of the in vitro assays performed indicate that ethanol extract of Monthan readily prevented crystal nucleation, growth and aggregation. Conclusion: Monthan corm juice is found to be an effective diuretic, and act as a promoter for inhibitors of crystallization. Keywords: Lithiasis, Kidney stones, Musa, Banana, Monthan, Calcium oxalate, Nucleation, Crystal growth and aggregationInternational Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 09/2013; 5(4):649-653. · 1.59 Impact Factor