Studies on the in vitro and in vivo antiurolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica.
ABSTRACT Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm(2)) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1 % ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30-100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.
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ABSTRACT: Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01(**), p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with standard Furosemide.Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 05/2014; 8(5):HC01-4.
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ABSTRACT: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi can be initiated by subepithelial calcification of the renal papillae. Hydroxyapatite disruption of the papillary epithelial layer can become the nidus of a COM papillary calculus. This study evaluated the causes of papillary tissue calcifications in 60 patients with calcium oxalate lithiasis, 30 with COM papillary and 30 with calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) calculi. Urinary redox potential was higher in the COM than the COD group, suggesting that the former is more deficient in antioxidants due to increased oxidative stress. Urinary calcium was significantly higher in the COD group, whereas urinary oxalate was significantly higher in the COM group, suggesting a greater degree of oxidative injury of renal cells. Evaluations of their diets showed that both groups consumed low amounts of phytate-rich products. Of chronic diseases possibly associated with urolithiasis, only the prevalence of gastroduodenal ulcer differed significantly, being higher in the COM group and suggesting that epithelial lesions are common to gastroduodenal ulcers and COM papillary renal stones. Occupational exposure to cytotoxic products occurred in 47 % of the COM and 27 % of the COD group, but this difference was not statistically significant. These findings indicate that oxidative stress is associated with injury to papillary tissue and that this is the origin of intrapapillary calcifications. The continuation of this process is due to modulators and/or deficiencies in inhibitors of crystallization. Identifying and eliminating the causes of injury may prevent recurrent episodes in patients with papillary COM calculi.Urolithiasis. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Under favorable conditions, magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), commonly known as struvite crystals, may form kidney stones in urinary tracts which can lead to infections and urolithiasis. Studies have shown that the traditional use of a number of herbal leaves extract could be an effective treatment for such disease. This paper presents a batch crystallization study to investigate the effect of Orthosiphon aristatus (cat’s whiskers or kumis kucing – in Malay) leaves extract on the crystallization behaviour of struvite. The experiment was conducted by mixing equimolar solutions of MgCl2 and NH4H2PO4 in a 1.0 L volume batch crystallizer at room temperature, with varied concentrations: 0.002; 0.0035; and 0.005 M respectively. The leaves extract was added into the crystallizing solution immediately after the mixing. The crystallization process was monitored by recording the pH change of the solution. In all experiments, the pH decreased steadily and started to tail off near the end of the crystallization. It was observed that the crystallization took place spontaneously, i.e. without induction time; except for 0.002 M, where the induction time was markedly detected at 3 min and 17 sec. The crystallization rate followed the modified first-order kinetic and ranged from 0.102/h to 4.152/h, which agree with most published values. The crystals produced reveal the typical shape of struvite crystals which is plate-like elongated in the longitudinal axis. Addition of Orthosiphon aristatus leaves extract resulted in fragmentation of the struvite crystals, indicating that the extract could interrupt the growth of the crystals. In practical terms, Orthosiphon aristatus leaves extract could be an effective media for kidney stones treatment. Keywords: crystallization; herbal; Orthosiphon aristatus; struvite; urolithiasis.3rd International Conference on Advanced Materials and Practical Nanotechnology (ICAMPN), Jakarta, Indonesia; 08/2014