Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.
ABSTRACT Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The goal of this study is to demonstrate an alternative procedure to perform topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, we propose the combined use of negative pressure and a 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) cream occlusion to increase protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) formation. Background data: PDT using topical 5-ALA as a prodrug and precursor of PPIX has been used in the treatment and diagnosis of different types of cancer and skin diseases. The use of 5-ALA offers many advantages as a localized and non-systemic application, but it shows limitations in relation to skin penetration. Many authors have discussed the limitations of 5-ALA penetration through the skin. The skin penetration of 5-ALA can be optimized using mechanical devices associated with typical PDT procedure. Methods: For this study, 20% 5-ALA cream was applied to a 9 cm(2) area of skin, and an occlusive dressing was placed. The PPIX production was collected at the skin surface, using fluorescence spectroscopy and widefield fluorescence imaging, for 7 h, and after 24 h. Results: We observed that in the presence of negative pressure therapy, the PPIX production, distribution, and elimination are greater and faster than in the control group. The PPIX formation was ∼30% in deeper skin layers, quantified by fluorescence spectroscopy analysis, and ∼20% in surface skin layers, quantified by widefield fluorescence imaging analysis. Conclusions: Negative pressure induction can also help PDT application in the case of inefficient PPIX production. These results can be useful for optimizing the PDT.Photomedicine and laser surgery 04/2014; DOI:10.1089/pho.2013.3670 · 1.58 Impact Factor