A New Scoring System for Evaluating the Risk of Heart Failure Events in Japanese Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
The Cardiovascular Institute, Tokyo, Japan.The American journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 05/2012; 110(5):678-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.04.049
Risk stratification for heart failure (HF) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been well established. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of HF events in patients with AF, consequently developing a new risk-scoring system that stratifies the risk for HF events. In this prospective, single hospital-based cohort, all patients who presented from July 2004 to March 2010 were registered (Shinken Database 2004-2009). Follow-up was maintained by being linked to the medical records or by sending study documents of prognosis. Of the 13,228 patients in the Shinken Database 2004-2009, 1,942 patients with AF were identified. Of the patients with AF, HF events (hospitalization or death from HF) occurred in 147 patients (7.6%) during a mean follow-up period of 776 ± 623 days. After identifying the parameters that were independently associated with the incidence of HF events (coexistence of organic heart diseases, anemia [hemoglobin level <11 g/dl], renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/m(2)], diabetes mellitus, and the use of diuretics), a new scoring system was developed, the H(2)ARDD score (heart diseases = 2 points, anemia = 1 point, renal dysfunction = 1 point, diabetes = 1 point, and diuretic use = 1 point; range 0 to 6 points). This scoring system discriminated the low- and high-risk populations well (incidence in patients scoring 0 and 6 points of 0.2% and 40.8% per patient-year, respectively) and showed high predictive ability (area under the curve 0.840, 95% confidence interval 0.803 to 0.876). In conclusion, the new H(2)ARDD score may help identify the population of patients with AF at high risk for HF events.
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ABSTRACT: Aim: Atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly co-exists with heart failure (HF). The risk factors for and prognostic implications of incident HF development in patients with first-diagnosed AF and structurally normal hearts are poorly defined. In a cohort of patients with first-diagnosed AF and structurally normal hearts on baseline echocardiography, we investigated baseline risk factors for the development of incident HF and tested the hypothesis that incident HF was an independent predictor of adverse outcomes during a mean 10-year follow-up period. Methods and results: This was a registry-based, observational cohort study of 842 patients initially diagnosed between 1992 and 2007 (mean age 51.6 ± 12.4 years), whereby 83 (9.9%) developed HF. The linearized rate of incident HF was 0.97% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.19%] per 100 patient-years. Baseline history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dilated left atrium, and low-normal LVEF (50-54%) were multivariable predictors of subsequent HF (all P < 0.05). HF development was significantly associated with increased number of hospitalizations, AF progression, any stroke/peripheral thrombo-embolism, ischaemic stroke, cardiovascular death, and all-cause mortality (all P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier 10-year estimates of survival free of the composite endpoint of AF progression, thrombo-embolism, and mortality were significantly worse for AF patients with incident HF compared with those without HF (68.8%; 95% CI 64.7-72.9 vs. 25.9% 95% CI 15.7-36.1, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Underlying co-morbidities or subtle alterations such as mild left atrial dilatation or low-normal LVEF in the absence of overt underlying heart disease are baseline independent risk factors for incident HF during a long-term follow-up. Incident HF was an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in patients initially diagnosed with first-diagnosed AF and structurally normal hearts. These findings could facilitate the identification of AF patients at increased risk for adverse outcomes within the cohort perceived as being at 'low risk' given a structurally normal heart on echocardiography.European Journal of Heart Failure 01/2013; 15(4). DOI:10.1093/eurjhf/hft004 · 6.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is becoming an epidemiologically important syndrome among the developed countries. Although racial differences exist with regard to AF prevalence, it remains unclear whether the AF mortality and morbidity rates exhibit racial differences. Medical treatment and management of AF is aimed at improving the clinical course of AF patients who reside in a particular region; therefore, the AF mortality and morbidity rates should be assessed from both global and local viewpoints. AF is a progressive disease that might be first detected as paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent. The associations between AF progression and AF-related cardiovascular morbidities and those between the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates of AF are important matters of discussion, as they reflect the rationale of AF therapy. At present, AF patients have a wide variety of backgrounds, and these analyses would require stratification by risks, which would not be free from racial differences. In this review, the mortality and morbidity rates of Japanese AF patients are reviewed and discussed.Circulation Journal 03/2013; 77(4). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-13-0002 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Frequent supraventricular extrasystoles (SVEs) are associated with the subsequent first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined role of SVEs and an AF-related risk score for ischemic stroke, the CHADS2 score, on the occurrence of new AF in patients in sinus rhythm. The Shinken Database 2004-2010 lists 3,263 patients who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. A total of 2,589 patients were analyzed, after excluding 674 patients previously diagnosed with AF. Frequent SVEs were defined as ≥102 beats/day (the top quartile) and the presence of a clinical background for a CHADS2 score ≥2 points as a high CHADS2 score. During the mean follow-up period of 571.4 ± 606.4 days, new AF occurred in 38 patients (9.4 per 1,000 patient-years). The incidence of new AF was 2.7 and 37.7 per 1,000 patient-years for patients with nonfrequent SVEs (<102 beats/day) and low CHADS2 scores and those with frequent SVEs and high CHADS2 scores, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard ratio for frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score compared with nonfrequent SVEs and a low CHADS2 score was 9.49 (95% confidence interval 3.20 to 28.15, p <0.001), even after adjustment for gender, age, medications, and echocardiographic parameters. In conclusion, frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score independently and synergistically predict the first-time appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, indicating an approximately 10-fold higher risk. Patients meeting these criteria should have more aggressive early intervention for preventing AF.The American journal of cardiology 03/2013; 111(11). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.01.335 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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