Intracellular signaling by the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates the Ras-related small GTPase Rap1 through the guanine exchange factor Epac. This activation leads to effector protein interactions, activation, and biological responses in the vasculature, including vasorelaxation. In vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human dermal arterioles (microVSM), Rap1 selectively regulates expression of G protein-coupled α(2C)-adrenoceptors (α(2C)-ARs) through JNK-c-jun nuclear signaling. The α(2C)-ARs are generally retained in the trans-Golgi compartment and mobilize to the cell surface and elicit vasoconstriction in response to cellular stress. The present study used human microVSM to examine the role of Rap1 in receptor localization. Complementary approaches included murine microVSM derived from tail arteries of C57BL6 mice that express functional α(2C)-ARs and mice deficient in Rap1A (Rap1A-null). In human microVSM, increasing intracellular cAMP by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin (10 μM) or selectively activating Epac-Rap signaling by the cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (100 μM) activated RhoA, increased α(2C)-AR expression, and reorganized the actin cytoskeleton, increasing F-actin. The α(2C)-ARs mobilized from the perinuclear region to intracellular filamentous structures and to the plasma membrane. Similar results were obtained in murine wild-type microVSM, coupling Rap1-Rho-actin dynamics to receptor relocalization. This signaling was impaired in Rap1A-null murine microVSM and was rescued by delivery of constitutively active (CA) mutant of Rap1A. When tested in heterologous HEK293 cells, Rap1A-CA or Rho-kinase (ROCK-CA) caused translocation of functional α(2C)-ARs to the cell surface (~4- to 6-fold increase, respectively). Together, these studies support vascular bed-specific physiological role of Rap1 and suggest a role in vasoconstriction in microVSM.
"The increased intracellular cAMP increases Ca 2+  and stimulates phosphorylation of CREB, one of downstream targets of cAMP . In addition, cAMP activates Rap1A by stimulating Epac . However, the role of Rap1A in OST has not been demonstrated. "
"physiological 37°C coupled), and cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent mechanism of receptor expression and translocation coupled to the cAMP receptor Epac and Rap1A-Rho-ROCK signaling pathway . Cyclic AMP leads to increased transcription of α2C-ARs through JNK-c-jun nuclear signaling and increased cell surface translocation of mature receptors through RhoA-ROCK signaling and F-actin coupled pathway , . Therefore, divergent signaling pathways, including cooling-triggered or cAMP-triggered converge on a common pathway, are necessary for receptor translocation to the cell surface. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs) mediate vasoconstriction of small blood vessels, especially arterioles. Studies of endogenous receptors in human arteriolar smooth muscle cells (referred to as microVSM) and transiently transfected receptors in heterologous HEK293 cells show that the α2C-ARs are perinuclear receptors that translocate to the cell surface under cellular stress and elicit a biological response. Recent studies in microVSM unraveled a crucial role of Rap1A-Rho-ROCK-F-actin pathways in receptor translocation, and identified protein-protein interaction of α2C-ARs with the actin binding protein filamin-2 as an essential step in the process. To better understand the molecular nature and specificity of this interaction, in this study, we constructed comparative models of human α2C-AR and human filamin-2 proteins. Finally, we performed in silico protein-protein docking to provide a structural platform for the investigation of human α2C-AR and filamin-2 interactions. We found that electrostatic interactions seem to play a key role in this complex formation which manifests in interactions between the C-terminal arginines of α2C-ARs (particularly R454 and R456) and negatively charged residues from filamin-2 region between residues 1979 and 2206. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that these interactions have evolved in warm-blooded animals.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103099. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103099 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Low intracellular cAMP may thus lead to the preferential expression of proinflammatory mediators. The above mentioned EPAC can activate the Ras-related small guanosine triphosphate (GTP) Rap1 and this activation can lead to biological responses including induction of phagocytosis, and vasorelaxation [4–7]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agents which increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) may have an antagonistic effect on pro-inflammatory molecule production so that inhibitors of the cAMP degrading phosphodiesterases have been identified as promising drugs in chronic inflammatory disorders. Although many such inhibitors have been developed, their introduction in the clinic has been hampered by their narrow therapeutic window with side effects such as nausea and emesis occurring at sub-therapeutic levels. The latest generation of inhibitors selective for phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), such as apremilast and roflumilast, seems to have an improved therapeutic index. While roflumilast has been approved for the treatment of exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), apremilast shows promising activity in dermatological and rheumatological conditions. Studies in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have demonstrated clinical activity of apremilast. Efficacy in psoriasis is probably equivalent to methotrexate but less than that of monoclonal antibody inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor (TNFi). Similarly, in psoriatic arthritis efficacy is less than that of TNF inhibitors. PDE4 inhibitors hold the promise to broaden the portfolio of anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches in a range of chronic inflammatory diseases which may include granulomatous skin diseases, some subtypes of chronic eczema and probably cutaneous lupus erythematosus. In this review, the authors highlight the mode of action of PDE4 inhibitors on skin and joint inflammatory responses and discuss their future role in clinical practice. Current developments in the field including the development of topical applications and the development of PDE4 inhibitors which specifically target the subform PDE4B will be discussed.
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