Cyclic AMP-Rap1A signaling activates RhoA to induce α(2c)-adrenoceptor translocation to the cell surface of microvascular smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Intracellular signaling by the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) activates the Ras-related small GTPase Rap1 through the guanine exchange factor Epac. This activation leads to effector protein interactions, activation, and biological responses in the vasculature, including vasorelaxation. In vascular smooth muscle cells derived from human dermal arterioles (microVSM), Rap1 selectively regulates expression of G protein-coupled α(2C)-adrenoceptors (α(2C)-ARs) through JNK-c-jun nuclear signaling. The α(2C)-ARs are generally retained in the trans-Golgi compartment and mobilize to the cell surface and elicit vasoconstriction in response to cellular stress. The present study used human microVSM to examine the role of Rap1 in receptor localization. Complementary approaches included murine microVSM derived from tail arteries of C57BL6 mice that express functional α(2C)-ARs and mice deficient in Rap1A (Rap1A-null). In human microVSM, increasing intracellular cAMP by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin (10 μM) or selectively activating Epac-Rap signaling by the cAMP analog 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP (100 μM) activated RhoA, increased α(2C)-AR expression, and reorganized the actin cytoskeleton, increasing F-actin. The α(2C)-ARs mobilized from the perinuclear region to intracellular filamentous structures and to the plasma membrane. Similar results were obtained in murine wild-type microVSM, coupling Rap1-Rho-actin dynamics to receptor relocalization. This signaling was impaired in Rap1A-null murine microVSM and was rescued by delivery of constitutively active (CA) mutant of Rap1A. When tested in heterologous HEK293 cells, Rap1A-CA or Rho-kinase (ROCK-CA) caused translocation of functional α(2C)-ARs to the cell surface (~4- to 6-fold increase, respectively). Together, these studies support vascular bed-specific physiological role of Rap1 and suggest a role in vasoconstriction in microVSM.
SourceAvailable from: Saras Saraswathi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs) mediate vasoconstriction of small blood vessels, especially arterioles. Studies of endogenous receptors in human arteriolar smooth muscle cells (referred to as microVSM) and transiently transfected receptors in heterologous HEK293 cells show that the α2C-ARs are perinuclear receptors that translocate to the cell surface under cellular stress and elicit a biological response. Recent studies in microVSM unraveled a crucial role of Rap1A-Rho-ROCK-F-actin pathways in receptor translocation, and identified protein-protein interaction of α2C-ARs with the actin binding protein filamin-2 as an essential step in the process. To better understand the molecular nature and specificity of this interaction, in this study, we constructed comparative models of human α2C-AR and human filamin-2 proteins. Finally, we performed in silico protein-protein docking to provide a structural platform for the investigation of human α2C-AR and filamin-2 interactions. We found that electrostatic interactions seem to play a key role in this complex formation which manifests in interactions between the C-terminal arginines of α2C-ARs (particularly R454 and R456) and negatively charged residues from filamin-2 region between residues 1979 and 2206. Phylogenetic and sequence analysis showed that these interactions have evolved in warm-blooded animals.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103099. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103099 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this review, we focus on significant developments in our understanding of the mechanisms that control the cutaneous vasculature in humans, with emphasis on the literature of the last half-century. To provide a background for subsequent sections, we review methods of measurement and techniques of importance in elucidating control mechanisms for studying skin blood flow. In addition, the anatomy of the skin relevant to its thermoregulatory function is outlined. The mechanisms by which sympathetic nerves mediate cutaneous active vasodilation during whole body heating and cutaneous vasoconstriction during whole body cooling are reviewed, including discussions of mechanisms involving cotransmission, NO, and other effectors. Current concepts for the mechanisms that effect local cutaneous vascular responses to local skin warming and cooling are examined, including the roles of temperature sensitive afferent neurons as well as NO and other mediators. Factors that can modulate control mechanisms of the cutaneous vasculature, such as gender, aging, and clinical conditions, are discussed, as are nonthermoregulatory reflex modifiers of thermoregulatory cutaneous vascular responses. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:33-89, 2014.01/2014; 4(1):33-89. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c130015
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ABSTRACT: The second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a vital role in the physiology of the cardiovascular system, including vasodilation of large blood vessels. This study focused on cAMP signaling in peripheral blood vessels, specifically in human vascular smooth muscle (microVSM) cells explanted from skin punch biopsy arterioles (also known as resistance vessels) of healthy volunteers. Using these human microVSM we recently demonstrated cAMP activation of exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), the Ras-related small GTPase Rap1A, and RhoA-ROCK-F-actin signaling in human microVSM to increase expression and cell surface translocation of functional α2C-adrenoceptors (α2C-ARs) that mediate vasoconstriction. Protein-protein association with the actin-binding protein filamin-2 and phosphorylation of filamin-2 Ser(2113) by cAMP-Rap1A-Rho-ROCK signaling were necessary for receptor translocation in these cells. Although cAMP activated A-kinase in these cells, these effects were independent of A-kinase, and suggested compartmentalized A-kinase local signaling facilitated by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). In this study we globally disrupted A-kinase-AKAP interactions by the anchoring inhibitor decoy peptide Ht31 and examined the effect on α2C-AR expression, translocation, and function in quiescent microVSM treated with the adenylyl cyclase activator and cAMP elevating agent forskolin. The results show that Ht31, but not the control peptide Ht31-P, reduced forskolin-stimulated Ser(133) phosphorylation of A-kinase substrate CREB, reduced α2C-AR mRNA levels, reduced cell surface translocated receptors, and attenuated agonist-triggered receptor functional responses. Together, the results suggest that compartmentalized cAMP signaling elicits a selective cellular response in microVSM, which may have relevance to arteriole physiological function and responses.01/2014; 1(1).