Platelet-neutrophil interactions as a target for prevention and treatment of transfusion-related acute lung injury
ABSTRACT Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transfused hosts and like other causes of acute lung injury, there is no effective pharmacologic treatment. The pathophysiology of TRALI is still being defined, but neutrophils have a major role in the pathogenesis of both human and experimental studies. Recently, MHC antibody-based experimental TRALI models have revealed that platelets sequester in the lung microvasculature and that platelet activation contributes to lung injury. Platelets, in general, have been increasingly implicated as major contributors to acute inflammation and injury in a variety of diseases. The role of platelets in TRALI may be through critical interactions with neutrophils and therapeutically this could present a target for pharmacologic intervention. Experimentally, aspirin pre-treatment of mice before TRALI is protective from acute lung injury and mortality. Other therapeutic interventions could include agents that uncouple neutrophils and platelets or prevent aggregation and activation, however targeting platelet activation in TRALI is complicated by the presence of bleeding as the indication for many transfusions. In conclusion, experimental studies are elucidating the role of platelets in acute lung injury and with this new understanding, clinical trials of anti-platelet agents should be considered.
- SourceAvailable from: Kiran Shekar[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) facilitates organ support in patients with refractory cardiorespiratory failure whilst disease-modifying treatments can be administered. Improvements to the ECMO process have resulted in its increased utilisation. However, iatrogenic injuries remain, with bleeding and thrombosis the most significant concerns. Many factors contribute to the formation of thrombi, with the hyperoxaemia experienced during ECMO a potential contributor. Outside of ECMO, emerging evidence associates hyperoxaemia with increased mortality. Currently, no universal definition of hyperoxaemia exists, a gap in clinical standards that may impact patient outcomes. Hyperoxaemia has the potential to induce platelet activation, aggregation and, subsequently, thrombosis through markedly increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. There are minimal data in the current literature that explore the relationship between ECMO-induced hyperoxaemia and the production of reactive oxygen species - a putative link towards pathology. Furthermore, there is limited research directly linking hyperoxaemia and platelet activation. These are areas that warrant investigation as definitive data regarding the nascence of these pathological processes may delineate and define the relative risk of supranormal oxygen tension. These data could then assist in defining optimal oxygenation practice, reducing the risks associated with extracorporeal support.Perfusion 01/2013; 28(3). DOI:10.1177/0267659112473172 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neutrophils have long been viewed as short-lived cells crucial for the elimination of extracellular pathogens, possessing a limited role in the orchestration of the immune response. This dogma has been challenged by recent lines of evidence demonstrating the expression of an increasing number of cytokines and effector molecules by neutrophils. Moreover, in analogy with their "big brother" macrophages, neutrophils integrate the environmental signals and can be polarized towards an antitumoural or protumoural phenotype. Neutrophils are a major source of humoral fluid phase pattern recognition molecules and thus contribute to the humoral arm of innate immunity. Neutrophils cross talk and shape the maturation and effector functions of other leukocytes in a direct or indirect manner, through cell-cell contact or cytokine production, respectively. Therefore, neutrophils are integrated in the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune system and play an important role in the resolution or exacerbation of diverse pathologies, including infections, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer.Seminars in Immunopathology 04/2013; 35(4). DOI:10.1007/s00281-013-0374-8 · 6.48 Impact Factor
Article: Transfusion sanguine et inflammation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Transfusion of labile blood products (LBPs) generates occasional inflammatory : type, hazards; for a large part of these, no antigen/antibody conflict is thus, detected. Residual leucocytes used to account for a large part of such incidents – rarely accidents. Since, however, the systematic leukoreduction of LBPs, leucocytes are the less and less incriminated in adverse events. Platelets themselves proved capable of secreting copious amounts of inflammatory mediators, even in the absence of any deliberated stimulation. Meanwhile, even though exceptionally, inflammation can be observed after red blood cell transfusion. It has been noticed that the collection mode of cellular compounds, as well as the preparation and storage conditions are capable of inflicting lesions to the cell membranes and to activate those cells, and thus promoting inflammatory responses. Storage lesions as well as ageing of the stored cells alongside with cell apoplosis contribute to inflammatory responses. This present ‘State of the Art’ paper aims at encompassing the primary and secondary components of the LBPs, along with the various types of molecules displaying pro-inflammatory properties that can be encountered in transfusion. A better knowledge of causes of inflammatory transfusion-linked hazards is indeed instrumental to the implementation of safety measures aimed at reducing or suppressing these unwanted effects.Transfusion Clinique et Biologique 05/2013; 20(2):231–238. DOI:10.1016/j.tracli.2013.02.010 · 0.67 Impact Factor