Studies on the effect of solvents on self-assembled monolayers formed from organophosphonic acids on indium tin oxide.
ABSTRACT The preparation of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of organophosphonic acids on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces from different solvents (triethylamine, ethyl ether, tetrahydofuran (THF), pyridine, acetone, methanol, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or water) has been performed with some significant differences observed. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and contact angle measurement demonstrated that the quality of SAMs depends critically on the choice of solvents. Higher density, more stable monolayers were formed from solvents with low dielectric constants and weak interactions with the ITO. It was concluded low dielectric solvents that were inert to the ITO gave monolayers that were more stable with a higher density of surface bound molecules because higher dielectric constant solvents and solvents that coordinate with the surface disrupted SAM formation.
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ABSTRACT: The modification of surfaces by the deposition of a robust overlayer provides an excellent handle with which to tune the properties of a bulk substrate to those of interest. Such control over the surface properties becomes increasingly important with the continuing efforts at down-sizing the active components in optoelectronic devices, and the corresponding increase in the surface area/volume ratio. Relevant properties to tune include the degree to which a surface is wetted by water or oil. Analogously, for biosensing applications there is an increasing interest in so-called "romantic surfaces": surfaces that repel all biological entities, apart from one, to which it binds strongly. Such systems require both long lasting and highly specific tuning of the surface properties. This Review presents one approach to obtain robust surface modifications of the surface of oxides, namely the covalent attachment of monolayers.Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 05/2014; 53(25):6322–6356. · 13.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The deposition of a prototypical phosphonic acid from an ethanol solution onto indium-tin oxide is studied using XPS to assess the chemisorption kinetics and the purity of the film deposited, and UPS is employed to determine the electronic structure changes induced by the modifier. Room temperature (r.t.) vs. 75 °C depositions are compared, as well as the effect of using air plasma (AP) pretreatment vs. utilizing only detergent-solvent cleaning (DSC) prior to immersion. It is concluded that the order of adsorption kinetics and film purity follows the trend AP 75 °C > DSC 75 °C > AP r.t. > DSC r.t., while the work function obtained for each immersion time depends on whether the substrate is plasma pretreated or not and on the molecular dipole, which saturates at high coverages.Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 01/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been used for the preparation of functional microtools consisting of encoded polysilicon barcodes biofunctionalized with proteins of the lectin family. These hybrid microtools exploit the lectins ability for recognizing specific carbohydrates of the cell membrane to give an efficient system for cell tagging. This work describes how the control of the methodology for SAM formation on polysilicon surfaces followed by lectin immobilization has a crucial influence on the microtool biofunction. Several parameters (silanization time, silane molar concentration, type of solvent or deposition methodology) have been studied to establish optimal function. Furthermore, silanes incorporating different terminal groups, such as aldehyde, activated ester or epoxide groups were tested in order to analyze their chemical coupling with the biomolecules, as well as their influence on the biofunctionality of the immobilized protein. Two different lectins - wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) - were immobilized, because they have different and specific cell recognition behaviour and exhibit different cell toxicity. In this way we can assess the effect of intrinsic bulk toxicity with that of the cell compatibility once immobilized as well as the importance of cell affinity. A variety of nanometrical techniques were used to characterize the active surfaces, and lectin immobilization was quantified using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and optical waveguide light mode spectroscopy (OWLS). Once the best protocol was found, WGA and PHA were immobilized on polysilicon coded barcodes, and these microtools showed excellent cell tagging on living mouse embryos when WGA was used.Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces 12/2013; 116C:104-113. · 4.28 Impact Factor