Bisphenol S in Urine from the United States and Seven Asian Countries: Occurrence and Human Exposures

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 05/2012; 46(12):6860-6. DOI: 10.1021/es301334j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.

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Available from: Kurunthachalam Kannan, Sep 28, 2015
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    • "BPA has been detected in the urine of the USA population in the concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 149 ng/ml (Calafat et al., 2008). In Canadian population, Bushnik et al. (2010) determined BPA (mean 1.16 μg/dm 3 ) in 90.7% of urine samples, while Liao et al. (2012b) detected BPS in 81% of urine samples (from trace to 21 μg/dm 3 ) of the populations of the USA, China, India and other Asian countries. In occupational survey, significant mean BPA concentration (mean—approximately 5 μg/ml; 5.4 μg/g creatinine) was determined in the urine of Chinese workers employed in the production of epoxy resins (He et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to provoke many deleterious impacts on human health, and thus it is now successively substituted by BPA analogues, whose effects have been poorly investigated. Up to now, only one study has been realized to assess the effect of BPA on human erythrocytes, which showed its significant hemolytic and oxidative potential. Moreover, no study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of BPA analogues on red blood cells. The purpose of the present study was to compare the impact of BPA and its selected analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol AF (BPAF) on hemolytic and morphological changes and hemoglobin oxidation (methemoglobin formation) in human erythrocytes. The erythrocytes were incubated with different bisphenols concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500 μg/ml for 1, 4 and 24 h. The compounds examined caused hemolysis in human erythrocytes with BPAF exhibiting the strongest effect. All bisphenols examined caused methemoglobin formation with BPA inducing the strongest oxidative potential. Flow cytometry analysis showed that all bisphenols (excluding BPS) induced significant changes in erythrocytes size. Changes in red blood cells shape were conducted using phase contrast microscopy. It was noticed that BPA and BPAF induced echinocytosis, BPF caused stomatocytosis, while BPS did not provoke changes in shape of red blood cells. Generally, the results showed that BPS, which is the main substituent of bisphenol A in polymers and thermal paper production, exhibited significantly lower disturbance of erythrocyte functions than BPA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 07/2015; 176-177. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.07.008 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "Bisphenols (BPs) are a group of chemicals with two hydroxyphenyl functionalities and are used as additives and/or reactive raw materials in polycarbonate plastics, plastic linings for food containers, dental sealants , and thermo-sensitive coatings for paper products among others (Song et al., 2014). Among BPs, BPA is widely used in numerous commercial applications and has been produced at over 3,600,000 t annually worldwide (Liao et al., 2012b). Human exposure to BPA is of concern because animal and human studies have identified potential health effects (Liao et al., 2012a; Song et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and eight bisphenol analogues (BPs) including bisphenol A (BPA) were determined in 388 indoor (including homes and microenvironments) dust samples collected from 12 countries (China, Colombia, Greece, India, Japan, Kuwait, Pakistan, Romania, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, U.S., and Vietnam). The concentrations of TBBPA and sum of eight bisphenols (ƩBPs) in dust samples ranged from <1 to 3600 and from 13 to 110,000ng/g, respectively. The highest TBBPA concentrations in house dust were found in samples from Japan (median: 140ng/g), followed by South Korea (84ng/g) and China (23ng/g). The highest ∑BPs concentrations were found in Greece (median: 3900ng/g), Japan (2600ng/g) and the U.S. (2200ng/g). Significant variations in BPA concentrations were found in dust samples collected from various microenvironments in offices and homes. Concentrations of TBBPA in house dust were significantly correlated with BPA and ∑BPs. Among the nine target chemicals analyzed, BPA was the predominant compound in dust from all countries. The proportion of TBBPA in sum concentrations of nine phenolic compounds analyzed in this study was the highest in dust samples from China (27%) and the lowest in Greece (0.41%). The median estimated daily intake (EDI) of ∑BPs through dust ingestion was the highest in Greece (1.6-17ng/kgbw/day), Japan (1.3-16) and the U.S. (0.89-9.6) for various age groups. Nevertheless, in comparison with the reported BPA exposure doses through diet, dust ingestion accounted for less than 10% of the total exposure doses in China and the U.S. For TBBPA, the EDI for infants and toddlers ranged from 0.01 to 3.4ng/kgbw/day, and dust ingestion is an important pathway for exposure accounting for 3.8-35% (median) of exposure doses in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environment International 07/2015; 83(October 2015):183–191. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.06.015 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Consequently, both compounds can nowadays be found in canned soft drinks and foods as well as thermal receipt paper (Becerra and Odermatt, 2012; Gallart-Ayala et al., 2011; Liao and Kannan, 2013; Vinas et al., 2010). Moreover, BPS has already been detected in human urine samples (Liao et al., 2012). Although much toxicological information on BPA is available, a proper human risk assessment of BPA analogues like BPF and BPS that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated structural analogue and widely used flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on human glucocorticoid and androgen receptor (GR and AR) activation were assessed. BPA, BPF, and TBBPA showed clear GR and AR antagonism with IC50 values of 67 μM, 60 μM, and 22 nM for GR, and 39 μM, 20 μM, and 982 nM for AR, respectively, whereas BPS did not affect receptor activity. In addition, murine MA-10 Leydig cells exposed to the bisphenol analogues were assessed for changes in secreted steroid hormone levels. Testicular steroidogenesis was altered by all bisphenol analogues tested. TBBPA effects were more directed towards the male end products and induced testosterone synthesis, while BPF and BPS predominantly increased the levels of progestagens that are formed in the beginning of the steroidogenic pathway. The MA-10 Leydig cell assay shows added value over the widely used H295R steroidogenesis assay because of its fetal-like characteristics and specificity for the physiologically more relevant testicular Δ4 steroidogenic pathway. Therefore, adding an in vitro assay covering fetal testicular steroidogenesis, such as the MA-10 cell line, to the panel of tests used to screen potential endocrine disruptors, is highly recommendable.
    Toxicology 01/2015; 329. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2015.01.003 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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