Bisphenol S in Urine from the United States and Seven Asian Countries: Occurrence and Human Exposures

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, PO Box 509, Albany, New York 12201-0509, United States.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 05/2012; 46(12):6860-6. DOI: 10.1021/es301334j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT As concern regarding the toxic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) grows, BPA in many consumer products is gradually being replaced with compounds such as bisphenol S (BPS). Nevertheless, data on the occurrence of BPS in human specimens are limited. In this study, 315 urine samples, collected from the general populations in the United States, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, were analyzed for the presence of total BPS (free plus conjugated) concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BPS was detected in 81% of the urine samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from below the limit of quantitation (LOQ; 0.02 ng/mL) to 21 ng/mL (geometric mean: 0.168 ng/mL). The urinary BPS concentration varied among countries, and the highest geometric mean concentration [1.18 ng/mLor 0.933 μg/g creatinine (Cre)] of BPS was found in urine samples from Japan, followed by the United States (0.299 ng/mL, 0.304 μg/g Cre), China (0.226 ng/mL, 0.223 μg/g Cre), Kuwait (0.172 ng/mL, 0.126 μg/g Cre), and Vietnam (0.160 ng/mL, 0.148 μg/g Cre). Median concentrations of BPS in urine samples from the Asian countries were 1 order of magnitude lower than the median concentrations reported earlier for BPA in the same set of samples, with the exception of samples from Japan. There were no significant differences in BPS concentrations between genders (male versus female), or among age groups (categorized as ≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), or races (Caucasian versus Asian). The daily intake (EDI) of BPS was estimated on the basis of urinary concentrations using a simple pharmacokinetic approach. The median EDI values of BPS in Japan, China, United States, Kuwait, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, and Korea were 1.67, 0.339, 0.316, 0.292, 0.217, 0.122, 0.084, and 0.023 μg/person, respectively. This is the first study to report the occurrence of BPS in human urine.

Download full-text


Available from: Kurunthachalam Kannan, Jun 25, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although much information on the endocrine activity of bisphenol A (BPA) is available, a proper human hazard assessment of analogues that are believed to have a less harmful toxicity profile is lacking. Here the possible effects of BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol S (BPS), as well as the brominated structural analogue and widely used flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) on human glucocorticoid and androgen receptor (GR and AR) activation were assessed. BPA, BPF, and TBBPA showed clear GR and AR antagonism with IC50 values of 67 μM, 60 μM, and 22 nM for GR, and 39 μM, 20 μM, and 982 nM for AR, respectively, whereas BPS did not affect receptor activity. In addition, murine MA-10 Leydig cells exposed to the bisphenol analogues were assessed for changes in secreted steroid hormone levels. Testicular steroidogenesis was altered by all bisphenol analogues tested. TBBPA effects were more directed towards the male end products and induced testosterone synthesis, while BPF and BPS predominantly increased the levels of progestagens that are formed in the beginning of the steroidogenic pathway. The MA-10 Leydig cell assay shows added value over the widely used H295R steroidogenesis assay because of its fetal-like characteristics and specificity for the physiologically more relevant testicular Δ4 steroidogenic pathway. Therefore, adding an in vitro assay covering fetal testicular steroidogenesis, such as the MA-10 cell line, to the panel of tests used to screen potential endocrine disruptors, is highly recommendable.
    Toxicology 01/2015; 329. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2015.01.003 · 3.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Obesity has been recognized as a major global public health concern. In particular, childhood obesity is a major risk factor for other health issues, such as type 2 diabetes, in later stages of life. A few earlier studies have associated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with childhood obesity. There is limited information, however, on exposure to EDCs and childhood obesity in India. In this study, urinary levels of 26 EDCs were determined in 49 obese and 27 non-obese Indian children. Eleven EDCs, including 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP3), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and bisphenol A bis (2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE Á 2H 2 O) were found in 470% of urine samples. No sig-nificant associations were found between childhood obesity and most target chemicals studied, except for 3,4-DHB, which showed a significant positive association. Urinary concentrations of 3,4-DHB were higher in obese children than in non-obese children, independent of age, sex, family income, parent education, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of several EDCs were higher in Indian children than the concentrations reported for children in the USA and China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report urinary concentrations of several EDCs in Indian children.
    Environmental Research 12/2014; 137. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.12.007 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the regulation on bisphenol A (BPA) in several industrialized countries, the demand for other bisphenol analogues (BPs) as substitutes for BPA is growing. Eight BPs were determined in sludge from 40 representative wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea. Total concentrations of BPs (ΣBP) in sludge ranged from <LOQ to 25700ngg(-1). The highest concentrations of ΣBP were found in sludge collected from WWTPs that received discharges from the paper and textile industries. The profiles of BPs were dependent on the proportions of industrial wastewater treated at each of the WWTPs. The sludge from industrial WWTPs contained elevated proportions of BPA, whereas sludge from domestic WWTPs was dominated by bisphenol F (BPF), suggesting use of BPF in certain industrial products in Korea. No significant correlations were found between BPs and the WWTP characteristics. The average per-capita emissions of BPs ranged from 0.04 (BPP) to 886gcapita(-1)d (BPA) through WWTP discharges. The emission fluxes of ΣBP through industrial WWTPs were 2-3 orders of magnitudes higher than those calculated for domestic WWTPs, indicating that industrial discharges are the major source of BPs into the Korean environment. This is the first nationwide survey of BPs in sludge from Korean WWTPs.
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 119C:1000-1006. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.011 · 3.50 Impact Factor