Common factors among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy: possible role of the noradrenergic nervous system.
ABSTRACT The neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) share in common the neuropathologic loss of locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic neurons. In addition, these two neurodegenerative disorders share two symptoms that define these disorders: cognitive impairment and depression. The hippocampus is a region that is known to play a role in cognition and depression, and the hippocampus receives sole noradrenergic innervation from LC neurons. However, it is unclear how the loss of LC noradrenergic neurons contributes to these common symptoms in these two disorders. Epilepsy is not considered a neurodegenerative disorder, but the hippocampus is severely affected in temporal lobe epilepsy. Of interest, cognitive impairment and depression are also common comorbid disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy. This article describes common symptoms among these three neurologic disorders and a possible role of the noradrenergic nervous system.
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ABSTRACT: Different duplications of the APP locus have been identified in five families with autosomal dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease (ADEOAD) and Abeta-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). This study describes the phenotype of this new entity. Clinical, neuropsychological, imagery and neuropathological data were reviewed. The phenotype was not dependent on the size of the duplication and there was no clinical feature of Down's syndrome. Dementia was observed in all cases; intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) was reported in 6 (26%) and seizures occurred in 12 (57%) of 21 patients. Age of onset of dementia ranged from 42 to 59 years, ICH from 53 to 64 years and age at death from 46 to 75 years. The neuropathological findings in five cases demonstrated Alzheimer's disease and severe CAA lesions that were reminiscent from those reported in brains of Down's syndrome patients. A striking feature consisted in intraneuronal Abetax-40 accumulation located in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus and in the pyramidal cell layer of the Ammon's horn.Brain 12/2006; 129(Pt 11):2966-76. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is abundant evidence for abnormalities of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5HT) neurotransmitter systems in depression and anxiety disorders. The majority of evidence supports underactivation of serotonergic function and complex dysregulation of noradrenergic function, most consistent with overactivation of this system. Treatment for these disorders requires perturbation of these systems. Reproducible increases in serotonergic function and decreases in noradrenergic function accompany treatment with antidepressants, and these alterations may be necessary for antidepressant efficacy. Dysregulation of these systems clearly mediates many symptoms of depression and anxiety. The underlying causes of these disorders, however, are less likely to be found within the NE and 5HT systems, per se. Rather their dysfunction is likely due to their role in modulating, and being modulated by, other neurobiologic systems that together mediate the symptoms of affective illness. Clarification of noradrenergic and serotonergic modulation of various brain regions may yield a greater understanding of specific symptomatology, as well as the underlying circuitry involved in euthymic and abnormal mood and anxiety states. Disrupted cortical regulation may mediate impaired concentration and memory, together with uncontrollable worry. Hypothalamic abnormalities likely contribute to altered appetite, libido, and autonomic symptoms. Thalamic and brainstem dysregulation contributes to altered sleep and arousal states. Finally, abnormal modulation of cortical-hippocampal-amygdala pathways may contribute to chronically hypersensitive stress and fear responses, possibly mediating features of anxiety, anhedonia, aggression, and affective dyscontrol. The continued appreciation of the neural circuitry mediating affective states and their modulation by neurotransmitter systems should further the understanding of the pathophysiology of affective and anxiety disorders.Depression and Anxiety 02/2000; 12 Suppl 1:2-19. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resuscitation fluids containing beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) have been shown to decrease cellular injury after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation through an unknown mechanism. We tested whether this effect was related to BHB-induced metabolic modulations. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to volume-controlled hemorrhage (27 mL/kg during 10 minutes followed by 75 minutes of shock during which another 8 mL/kg of blood was withdrawn). Experimental groups included the following: (1) sham, (2) no resuscitation (NR), (3) racemic lactated Ringer's (DL-LR) solution, (4) LR containing L-isomer only (L-LR), (5) ketone Ringer's solution with lactate substituted by BHB (KR), and (6) pyruvate Ringer's solution with lactate substituted by pyruvate (PR). The resuscitation fluids were infused during 45 minutes simultaneously with additional hemorrhage of 8 mL/kg. Hemodynamic and physiologic parameters and the plasma levels of BHB were serially measured. The animals were killed 2 hours after resuscitation, and tissues were frozen instantaneously for cellular adenylate extraction and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate analysis. Pulmonary apoptosis was studied using Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Expression of enzymes involved in ketogenesis and ketolysis was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. NR and resuscitation with DL-LR increased the expression of apoptotic markers, whereas resuscitation with KR and PR significantly decreased the expression of apoptotic markers in rat lungs. Resuscitation with KR was followed by a profound increase in plasma BHB levels; however, the expression levels of ketolytic enzymes were essentially unaffected. KR infusion did not induce significant improvements in tissue ATP levels. Resuscitation with KR and PR protects against pulmonary apoptosis without improving tissue ATP content. Therefore, metabolic modulation is unlikely to be the major mechanism by which BHB exerts its protective effects during reperfusion.Surgery 09/2003; 134(2):267-74. · 3.37 Impact Factor