Gene expression in skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion after plantar incision in the rat.
ABSTRACT Treating postoperative pain remains a significant challenge for perioperative medicine. Recent studies have shown that nerve growth factor is up-regulated and contributes to incisional pain. To date, few studies have examined expression of other neurotrophin-related mediators that may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of incisional pain.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a plantar incision, and pain behaviors were examined (n = 6). In a separate group of rats, expression of neurotrophic factors were studied. At various times after incision (n = 4) or sham surgery (n = 4), the skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglia were harvested and total RNA isolated. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed and the fold change in gene expression was analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays.
Several genes were changed (P < 0.05) as early as 1 h after incision. Expression of artemin and nerve growth factor were increased in both incised skin and muscle. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-5 were all down-regulated in the skin but up-regulated in the muscle 48 h after incision. Few genes changed in the dorsal root ganglion. Most changes in expression occurred in the first 48 h after incision, a timeframe when pain behavior was the greatest.
Surgical incision is associated with pain-related gene expression changes in skin, muscle, and, to a lesser extent, dorsal root ganglion. The gene expression profile provides clues as to mediators that are involved in peripheral sensitization and pain transmission after surgical incision and also suggest mechanisms for resolution of postoperative pain when more persistent pain syndromes like neuropathic pain continue.
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ABSTRACT: Internalization and transport of a ligand-receptor complex are required to initiate cell body responses to target-derived neurotrophin. However, it is not known whether internalized receptors and cell surface receptors initiate the same signaling pathways and biological responses. Here we use a temperature-sensitive mutant of dynamin (G273D) to control the subcellular localization of activated NGF receptors (Trks). We show that dynamin function is required for ligand-dependent endocytosis of Trk receptors. In PC12 cells, nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation promotes both survival and neuronal differentiation. These distinct biological responses to NGF are controlled by receptors signaling from different locations within the cell. Neuronal differentiation is promoted by catalytically active Trks within endosomes in the cell interior. In contrast, survival responses are initiated by activated receptors at the cell surface where they orchestrate prolonged activation of the kinase Akt. Thus, interactions between Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and intracellular signaling molecules are dictated both by phosphotyrosine motifs within the receptors and by the intracellular location of phosphorylated receptors.Journal of Neuroscience 09/2000; 20(15):5671-8. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a rat model of incisional pain. A 1-cm longitudinal incision was made through skin, fascia and muscle of the plantar aspect of the hindpaw in halothane-anesthetized rats. Withdrawal responses were measured using von Frey filaments at different areas around the wound before surgery and for the next 6 days. A cumulative pain score based on the weight bearing behavior of the animals was also utilized. The results of tests for withdrawal responses and scores based on weight bearing suggest that a surgical incision of the rat foot causes a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia lasting for several days after surgery. An incision that only included skin and fascia but not muscle in the foot caused less severe hyperalgesia during the initial postoperative period. Distinct areas around the wound had different withdrawal thresholds during the study period. Even remote sites as much as 10 mm from the wound showed persistent mechanical hyperalgesia. Selective denervations of the rat hindpaw prior to foot incision revealed both the sural and tibial nerves were responsible for transmitting input from the incision that produces hyperalgesia. This model should allow us to understand mechanisms of sensitization caused by surgery and investigate new therapies for postoperative pain in humans.Pain 04/1996; 64(3):493-501. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The central and peripheral inflammatory response to surgery may influence patient outcomes. This study examines the time course and clinical relevance of changes in prostaglandin E2 and cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid, local tissue (surgical site), and circulating blood during and after total hip replacement. Thirty osteoarthritis patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated to three groups (n = 10/group): placebo for 4 days before surgery and on the morning of surgery; placebo for 4 days before surgery and oral rofecoxib 50 mg on the morning of surgery; oral rofecoxib 50 mg for 4 days before surgery and the morning of surgery. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were collected before surgery and up to 30 h after incision for measurement of prostaglandin E2 and interleukins. When hip replacement was complete, a drain was placed in the hip wound and exudates were collected at 3 to 30 h after incision. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an initial increase in interleukin 6 and a later rise in prostaglandin E2 concentration after surgery; interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were undetectable. Hip surgical site fluid evidenced an increase in prostaglandin E2, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and interleukin 1beta; tumor necrosis factor alpha decreased at 24 and 30 h. Preoperative administration of the cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor rofecoxib reduced cerebrospinal fluid and surgical site prostaglandin E2 and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin 6. Cerebrospinal fluid prostaglandin E2 was positively correlated with postoperative pain and cerebrospinal fluid interleukin 6 with sleep disturbance. Poorer functional recovery was positively correlated with increased surgical site prostaglandin E2. These results suggest that upregulation of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 6 at central sites is an important component of surgery induced inflammatory response in patients and may influence clinical outcome.Anesthesiology 04/2006; 104(3):403-10. · 5.16 Impact Factor