Gene Expression in Skin, Muscle, and Dorsal Root Ganglion after Plantar Incision in the Rat
ABSTRACT Treating postoperative pain remains a significant challenge for perioperative medicine. Recent studies have shown that nerve growth factor is up-regulated and contributes to incisional pain. To date, few studies have examined expression of other neurotrophin-related mediators that may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of incisional pain.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a plantar incision, and pain behaviors were examined (n = 6). In a separate group of rats, expression of neurotrophic factors were studied. At various times after incision (n = 4) or sham surgery (n = 4), the skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglia were harvested and total RNA isolated. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed and the fold change in gene expression was analyzed using significance analysis of microarrays.
Several genes were changed (P < 0.05) as early as 1 h after incision. Expression of artemin and nerve growth factor were increased in both incised skin and muscle. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, and neurotrophin-5 were all down-regulated in the skin but up-regulated in the muscle 48 h after incision. Few genes changed in the dorsal root ganglion. Most changes in expression occurred in the first 48 h after incision, a timeframe when pain behavior was the greatest.
Surgical incision is associated with pain-related gene expression changes in skin, muscle, and, to a lesser extent, dorsal root ganglion. The gene expression profile provides clues as to mediators that are involved in peripheral sensitization and pain transmission after surgical incision and also suggest mechanisms for resolution of postoperative pain when more persistent pain syndromes like neuropathic pain continue.
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ABSTRACT: The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after paclitaxel treatment is not well understood. Given the poor penetration of paclitaxel into central nervous system, peripheral nervous system is most at risk. Intrinsic membrane properties of dorsal root ganglion neurons were studied by intracellular recordings. Multiple-gene real-time polymerase chain reaction array was used to investigate gene expression of dorsal root ganglion neuronal ion channels. Paclitaxel increased the incidence of spontaneous activity from 4.8 to 27.1% in large-sized and from 0 to 33.3% in medium-sized neurons. Paclitaxel decreased the rheobase (nA) from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 in large-sized, from 1.5 ± 0.2 to 0.6 ± 0.1 in medium-sized, and from 1.6 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 in small-sized neurons. After paclitaxel treatment, other characteristics of membrane properties in each group remained the same except that Aδ neurons showed shorter action potential fall time (ms) (1.0 ± 0.2, n = 10 vs. 1.8 ± 0.3, n = 9, paclitaxel vs. vehicle). Meanwhile, real-time polymerase chain reaction array revealed an alteration in expression of some neuronal ion channel genes including up-regulation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 1 (fold change 1.76 ± 0.06) and Nav1.7 (1.26 ± 0.02) and down-regulation of Kir channels (Kir1.1, 0.73 ± 0.05, Kir3.4, 0.66 ± 0.06) in paclitaxel-treated animals. The increased neuronal excitability and the changes in gene expression of some neuronal ion channels in dorsal root ganglion may provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy, which may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.Anesthesiology 02/2014; DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000176 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute postoperative pain is one of the frequent reasons for pain treatment. However, the exact mechanisms of its development are still not completely clear. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are involved in nociceptive signaling in various hypersensitive states. Here we have investigated the contribution of TRPV1 receptors expressed on cutaneous peripheral nociceptive fibers and in the spinal cord on the development and maintenance of hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli following surgical incision. A rat plantar incision model was used to test paw withdrawal responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli. The effect of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist SB366791 was investigated 1) by intrathecal injection 15 min before incision and 2) intradermal injection before (30 min) and immediately after the surgery. Vehicle-injected rats and naïve animals treated identically were used as controls. Plantar incision induced mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia and thermal hyperalgesia. A single intrathecal administration of SB366791 significantly reduced postincisional thermal hyperalgesia and also attenuated mechanical allodynia, while mechanical hyperalgesia remained unaffected. Local intradermal SB366791 treatment reduced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia without affecting mechanical hyperalgesia. Our experiments suggest that both peripheral and spinal cord TRPV1 receptors are involved in increased cutaneous sensitivity following surgical incision. The analgesic effect of the TRPV1 receptor antagonist was especially evident in the reduction of thermal hyperalgesia. The activation of TRPV1 receptors represents an important mechanism in the development of postoperative hypersensitivity.Molecular Pain 01/2014; 10:67. DOI:10.1186/1744-8069-10-67 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The brainstem is well recognized as a critical site for integrating descending modulatory systems that both inhibit and facilitate pain at the level of the spinal cord. The cerebrospinal fluid-contacting nucleus (CSF-contacting nucleus) distributes and localizes in the ventral periaqueductal central gray of the brainstem. Although emerging lines of evidence suggests that the CSF-contacting nucleus may be closely linked to transduction and regulation of pain signals, the definitive role of the CSF-contacting nucleus in pain modulation remains poorly understood. In the present study, we determined the role of the CSF-contacting nucleus in rat nocifensive behaviors after persistent pain by targeted ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus in the brainstem using the cholera toxin subunit B-saporin (CB-SAP), a cytotoxin coupled to cholera toxin subunit B. Compared with CB/SAP, CB-SAP induced complete ablation of the CSF-contacting nucleus, the CB-SAP-treated rats showed hypersensitivity in responses to acute nociceptive stimulation, and exacerbated spontaneous nocifensive responses induced by formalin, and thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia induced by plantar incision. Furthermore, immunohistochemical experiments showed that the CSF-contacting nucleus was a cluster of 5-HT-containing neurons in the brainstem, and the spinal projection of serotonergic axons originating from the CSF-contacting nucleus constituted the descending 5-HT pathway to the spinal cord. CB-SAP induced significant downregulation of 5-HT in spinal dorsal horn, and intrathecal injection of 5-HT significantly reversed hypersensitivity in responses to acute nociceptive stimulation in the CB-SAP-treated rats. These results indicate that the CSF-contacting nucleus 5-HT pathway is an important component of the endogenous descending inhibitory system in the control of spinal nociceptive transmission.Experimental Neurology 11/2014; 261. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.07.018 · 4.62 Impact Factor