Training-induced compensation versus magnification of individual differences in memory performance.

Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development Berlin, Germany.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.9). 01/2012; 6:141. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Do individuals with higher levels of task-relevant cognitive resources gain more from training, or do they gain less? For episodic memory, empirical evidence is mixed. Here, we revisit this issue by applying structural equation models for capturing individual differences in change to data from 108 participants aged 9-12, 20-25, and 65-78 years. Participants learned and practiced an imagery-based mnemonic to encode and retrieve words by location cues. Initial mnemonic instructions reduced between-person differences in memory performance, whereas further practice after instruction magnified between-person differences. We conclude that strategy instruction compensates for inefficient processing among the initially less able. In contrast, continued practice magnifies ability-based between-person differences by uncovering individual differences in memory plasticity.

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