"In this work, liposomes that contain DOX hydrochloride and ABC are prepared and functionalized with an antinucleolin aptamer (AS1411) for targeting DOX-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) that overexpress nucleolin receptors . AS1411 is a 26-nucleotide guanosine-rich DNA aptamer that can bind to the nucleolin proteins on tumor cells and enter those cells when the nucleolin receptors are shuttled from the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm . Once the liposomes have been internalized by the cancer cells, local heating generates CO 2 bubbles by the decomposition of ABC, rapidly triggering the release of DOX from the liposomal carriers. "
"At tumor sites, the ApNPs induced apoptosis and inhibited spheroid tumor growth. Similarly, Aravind et al.116 functionalized PLGA-lecithin-PEG nanoparticles that were loaded with the anticancer drug Paclitaxel, using AS1411 DNA aptamers to specifically target tumor cells that overexpressed nucleolin receptors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred years ago, Dr. Paul Ehrlich popularized the "magic bullet" concept for cancer therapy in which an ideal therapeutic agent would only kill the specific tumor cells it targeted. Since then, "targeted therapy" that specifically targets the molecular defects responsible for a patient's condition has become a long-standing goal for treating human disease. However, safe and efficient drug delivery during the treatment of cancer and infectious disease remains a major challenge for clinical translation and the development of new therapies. The advent of SELEX technology has inspired many groundbreaking studies that successfully adapted cell-specific aptamers for targeted delivery of active drug substances in both in vitro and in vivo models. By covalently linking or physically functionalizing the cell-specific aptamers with therapeutic agents, such as siRNA, microRNA, chemotherapeutics or toxins, or delivery vehicles, such as organic or inorganic nanocarriers, the targeted cells and tissues can be specifically recognized and the therapeutic compounds internalized, thereby improving the local concentration of the drug and its therapeutic efficacy. Currently, many cell-type-specific aptamers have been developed that can target distinct diseases or tissues in a cell-type-specific manner. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use of cell-specific aptamers for targeted disease therapy, as well as conjugation strategies and challenges.
"It demonstrates the hydrophilic moiety of PEG on the particular surface in the nanoplatforms, which provides the steric hindrance of a particular system to be shielded against the RES system for a prolonged delivery of the drug. Aravind et al. studied the long-circulating, drug-loaded polymeric micelles enhancing tumor permeability with a TGFí µí»½ inhibitor in the poorly permeable pancreatic tumors in a murine model of the C26 or BxPC3 tumors . They loaded 1,2-diaminocyclohexane- platinum(II)(DACHPt), which is the parent complex of oxaliplatin, in the polymeric micelles of PEG-b-poly(glutamic acid) (PEG-b-P(Glu)) copolymer and P(Glu) homopolymer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials are necessary to be developed for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Nanobiomaterials can be engineered to recognize cancer-specific receptors at the cellular levels and to deliver anticancer drugs into the diseased sites. In particular, nanobiomaterial-based nanocarriers, so-called nanoplatforms, are the design of the targeted delivery systems such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles/micelles, nanoconjugates, norganic materials, carbon-based nanobiomaterials, and bioinspired phage system, which are based on the nanosize of 1-100 nm in diameter. In this review, the design and the application of these nanoplatforms are discussed at the cellular levels as well as in the clinics. We believe that this review can offer recent advances in the targeted delivery systems of nanobiomaterials regarding in vitro and in vivo applications and the translation of nanobiomaterials to nanomedicine in anticancer therapy.
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