Pollen-mediated gene flow in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a semiarid field environment in Spain.
ABSTRACT Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties are being developed and field-tested in various countries. Concerns regarding gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to non-GM crops have stimulated research to estimate outcrossing in wheat prior to the release and commercialization of any transgenic cultivars. The aim is to ensure that coexistence of all types of wheat with GM wheat is feasible in accordance with current regulations. The present study describes the result of a field experiment under the semi-arid climate conditions of Madrid, Spain, at two locations ("La Canaleja" and "El Encin" experimental stations) in Madrid over a 3-year period, from 2005 to 2007. The experimental design consisted of a 50 × 50 m wheat pollen source sown with wheat cultivars resistant to the herbicide chlortoluron ('Deganit' and 'Castan' respectively) and three susceptible receptor cultivars ('Abental', 'Altria' and 'Recital') sown in replicated 1 × 1 m plots at different distances (0, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 m) and four directions. Outcrossing rates were measured as a percentage of herbicide-resistant hybrids using an herbicide-screening assay. Outcrossing was greatest near the pollen source, averaging 0.029 % at 0 m distance at "La Canaleja" and 0.337 % at "El Encin", both below the 0.9 % European Union regulated threshold, although a maximum outcrossing rate of 3.5 % was detected in one recipient plot. These percentages declined rapidly as the distance increased, but hybrids were detected at different rates at distances of up to 100 m, the maximum distance of the experiment. Environmental conditions, as drought in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, may have influenced the extent of outcrossing. These assays carried out in wheat under semi-arid conditions in Europe provide a more complete assessment of pollen-mediated gene flow in this crop.
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ABSTRACT: Transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with improved agronomic traits is currently being field-tested. Gene flow in space is well-documented, but isolation in time has not received comparable attention. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated reductions in intraspecific gene flow associated with temporal isolation of flowering between T. aestivum conspecifics. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between an imazamox-resistant (IR) volunteer wheat population and a non-IR spring wheat crop was assessed over a range of volunteer emergence timings and plant population densities that collectively promoted flowering asynchrony. Natural hybridization events between the two populations were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) lines. Based on the examination of >545,000 seedlings, we identified a hybridization window in spring wheat approximately 125 growing degree-days (GDD) in length. We found a sizeable reduction (two- to four-fold) in gene flow frequencies when flowering occurred outside of this window. The hybridization window identified in this research also will serve to temporally isolate neighboring wheat crops. However, strict control of volunteer populations or spatial isolation of neighbouring crops emerging within a 125 GDD hybridization window will be necessary to maintain low frequencies of PMGF in spring wheat fields. The model developed herein also is likely to be applicable to other wind-pollinated species.Transgenic Research 09/2009; 19(3):449-60. DOI:10.1007/s11248-009-9322-8 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chlorotoluron is a selective phenylurea herbicide widely used for broad-leaved and annual grass weed control in cereals. Variation in the response to chlorotoluron (CT) was found in both hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum dicoccoides KöRN.). Here, we describe the comparative mapping of the CT resistance gene (Su1) on chromosome 6B in bread and wild wheat using RFLP markers. In bread wheat, mapping was based on 58 F(4) single-seed descent (SSD) plants of the cross between a genotype sensitive to chlorotoluron, 'Chinese Spring' (CS), and a resistant derivative, the single chromosome substitution line, CS ('Cappele-Desprez' 6B) [CS (CAP6B). In T dicoccoides, mapping was based on 37 F(2) plants obtained from the cross between the CT-susceptible accession B-7 and the resistant accession B-35. Nine RFLP probes spanning the centromere were chosen for mapping. In bread wheat Su1 was found to be linked to alpha-Amy-1 (9.84 cM) and Xpsr371 (5.2 cM), both on the long arm of 6B, and Nor2 (2.74 cM) on the short arm. In wild wheat the most probable linkage map was Nor2-Xpsr312-Su1-Pgk2, and the genetic distances between the genes were 24.8cM, 5.3cM, and 6.8cM, respectively. These results along with other published map data indicate that the linear order of the genes is similar to that found in T. aestivum. The results of this study also show that the Su1 gene for differential response to chlorotoluron has evolved prior to the domestication of cultivated wheat and not in response to the development and use of chemicals.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 02/1997; 94(1):46-51. DOI:10.1007/s001220050380 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted in Chile and western Canada to measure short-distance (0 to 100 m) outcrossing from transgenic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) intended for plant molecular farming to non-transgenic commodity safflower of the same variety. The transgenic safflower used as the pollen source was transformed with a construct for seed-specific expression of a high-value protein and constitutive expression of a gene conferring resistance to the broad-spectrum herbicide glufosinate. Progeny of non-transgenic plants grown in plots adjacent to the transgenic pollen source were screened for glufosinate resistance to measure outcrossing frequency. Outcrossing frequency differed among locations: values closest to the transgenic pollen source (0 to 3 m) ranged from 0.48 to 1.67% and rapidly declined to between 0.0024 to 0.03% at distances of 50 to 100 m. At each location, outcrossing frequency was spatially heterogeneous, indicating insects or wind moved pollen asymmetrically. A power analysis assuming a binomial distribution and a range of alpha values (type 1 error) was conducted to estimate an upper and lower confidence interval for the probable transgenic seed frequency in each sample. This facilitated interpretation when large numbers of seeds were screened from the outcrossing experiments and no transgenic seeds were found. This study should aid regulators and the plant molecular farming industry in developing confinement strategies to mitigate pollen mediated gene flow from transgenic to non-transgenic safflower.Environmental Biosafety Research 01/2009; 8(1):19-32. DOI:10.1051/ebr/2008023