T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in differentiated murine embryonic stem cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
ABSTRACT T-2 toxin, a member of the trichothecene mycotoxin family produced by the Fusarium fungi, has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vivo. However, the embryonic toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro remains unclear. In the present study, two permanent cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ES cells D3) and fibroblast 3T3 cells, were used to evaluate T-2 toxin toxicity. Differentiated mouse ES cells were cultivated as embryoid bodies along with T-2 toxin at different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 ng/ml) for 24 h. The increases in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and DNA oxidative damage, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were observed at 1 and 2 ng/ml concentrations. Flow cytometry showed that T-2 toxin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, T-2 toxin opened the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and induced the upregulation of p53, caspase-9, caspase-3 expression and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. However, T-2 toxin-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in differentiated ES cells decreased significantly in the presence of the antioxidant Trolox. Taken together, these results demonstrate that T-2 toxin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated murine ES cells, and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway plays an important role in T-2 toxin induced apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Abrin is a plant glycoprotein toxin from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, and shares the structure and properties with ricin. Abrin is highly toxic, with an estimated human fatal dose of 0.1–1 μg/kg, causing death after accidental and intentional poisoning. It is a potent toxin warfare agent. There are no antidotes available for abrin intoxication. It is becoming increasingly important to develop countermeasures for abrin by developing preand post-exposure medical therapy. The present study involves the screening of certain pharmaceutical agents for their potential to counter abrin toxicity in Jurkat T lymphocytes and the probable mechanism of action of the compounds with protective effect. The compounds studied are: Prednisolone, Minocycline, Amifostine, DRDE-07 (amifostine analog), Melatonin, Ebselen, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Trolox. Among them, only NAC and trolox were found to confer significant protection in Jurkat cells by restoring antioxidant enzymes depleted by abrin treatment. Abrin also shown to increase in stress factor associated proteins SAPK/JNK, c-fos and c-jun levels which were effectively suppressed by NAC and trolox. In addition to this, both compounds significantly inhibit abrin induced inflammation and caspase-3 activity. These data suggest that NAC and trolox may serve as potential candidates for management of abrin-induced poisoning.International immunopharmacology 01/2014; 21:412-425. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fusarochromanone (FC101), a mycotoxin produced by the fungus Fusarium equiseti, is frequently observed in the contaminated grains and feedstuffs, which is toxic to animals and humans. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be defined. In this study, we found that FC101 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in COS7 and HEK293 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis showed that FC101 induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in the cells. Concurrently, FC101 downregulated protein expression of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 and CDK6), and Cdc25A, and upregulated expression of the CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), resulting in hypophosphorylation of Rb. FC101 also inhibited protein expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and survivin, and induced expression of BAD, leading to activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of PARP, indicating caspase-dependent apoptosis. However, Z-VAD-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, only partially prevented FC101-induced cell death, implying that FC101 may induce cell death through both caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our results support the notion that FC101 executes its toxicity at least by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e112641. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trichothecenes are a large family of structurally related toxins mainly produced by Fusarium genus. Among the trichothecenes, T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) cause the most concern due to their wide distribution and highly toxic nature. Trichothecenes are known for their inhibitory effect on eukaryotic protein synthesis, and oxidative stress is one of their most important underlying toxic mechanisms. They are able to generate free radicals, including reactive oxygen species, which induce lipid peroxidation leading to changes in membrane integrity, cellular redox signaling, and in the antioxidant status of the cells. The mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling pathway is induced by oxidative stress, which also induces caspase-mediated cellular apoptosis pathways. Several new metabolites and novel metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin have been discovered very recently. In human cell lines, HT-2 and neosolaniol (NEO) are the major metabolites of T-2 toxin. Hydroxylation on C-7 and C-9 are two novel metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin in rats. The metabolizing enzymes CYP3A22, CYP3A29, and CYP3A46 in pigs, as well as the enzymes CYP1A5 and CYP3A37 in chickens, are able to catalyze T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin to form the C-3′–OH metabolites. Similarly to carboxylesterase, CYP3A29 possesses the hydrolytic ability in pigs to convert T-2 toxin to NEO. T-2 toxin is able to down- or upregulate cytochrome P-450 enzymes in different species. The metabolism of DON in humans is region-dependent. Free DON and DON-glucuronide are considered to be the biomarkers for humans. The masked mycotoxin DON-3-β-d-glucoside can be hydrolyzed to free DON in the body. This review will provide useful information on the progress of oxidative stress as well as on the metabolism and the metabolizing enzymes of T-2 toxin and DON. Moreover, the literature will throw light on the blind spots of metabolism and toxicological studies in trichothecenes that have to be explored in the future.Archive für Toxikologie 06/2014; · 5.22 Impact Factor