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T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in differentiated murine embryonic stem cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

Evaluation and Research Centre for Toxicology, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijing, 100071, People's Republic of China.
Apoptosis (Impact Factor: 3.61). 05/2012; 17(8):895-907. DOI: 10.1007/s10495-012-0724-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT T-2 toxin, a member of the trichothecene mycotoxin family produced by the Fusarium fungi, has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vivo. However, the embryonic toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro remains unclear. In the present study, two permanent cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ES cells D3) and fibroblast 3T3 cells, were used to evaluate T-2 toxin toxicity. Differentiated mouse ES cells were cultivated as embryoid bodies along with T-2 toxin at different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 ng/ml) for 24 h. The increases in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and DNA oxidative damage, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were observed at 1 and 2 ng/ml concentrations. Flow cytometry showed that T-2 toxin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, T-2 toxin opened the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and induced the upregulation of p53, caspase-9, caspase-3 expression and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. However, T-2 toxin-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in differentiated ES cells decreased significantly in the presence of the antioxidant Trolox. Taken together, these results demonstrate that T-2 toxin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated murine ES cells, and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway plays an important role in T-2 toxin induced apoptosis.

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