T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in differentiated murine embryonic stem cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
ABSTRACT T-2 toxin, a member of the trichothecene mycotoxin family produced by the Fusarium fungi, has been shown to exert a variety of toxic effects on multiple targets in vivo. However, the embryonic toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro remains unclear. In the present study, two permanent cell lines, embryonic stem cells (ES cells D3) and fibroblast 3T3 cells, were used to evaluate T-2 toxin toxicity. Differentiated mouse ES cells were cultivated as embryoid bodies along with T-2 toxin at different concentrations (0.5, 1, and 2 ng/ml) for 24 h. The increases in cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and DNA oxidative damage, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential were observed at 1 and 2 ng/ml concentrations. Flow cytometry showed that T-2 toxin induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, T-2 toxin opened the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and induced the upregulation of p53, caspase-9, caspase-3 expression and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. However, T-2 toxin-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in differentiated ES cells decreased significantly in the presence of the antioxidant Trolox. Taken together, these results demonstrate that T-2 toxin induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated murine ES cells, and ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway plays an important role in T-2 toxin induced apoptosis.
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ABSTRACT: Zearalenone(ZEN) is a mycotoxin from Fusarium species commonly found in many food commodities and are known to cause reproductive disorders, genotoxic and immunosuppressive effects. Although many studies have demonstrated the cytotoxic effects of ZEN, the mechanisms by which ZEN mediates its cytotoxic effects appear to differ according to cell type and route of exposure. Meantime, the available information on the neurotoxic effects of ZEN is very much limited. In the present study we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in ZEN mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and investigated the possible underlying mechanism. ZEN induced ROS formation and elevated levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase in DNA damage in a dose dependent manner as assessed by COMET assay and agarose gel electrophoresis. However, there was no DNA damage by plasmid breakage assay at 6, 12 and 24h time points. DAPI staining showed apoptotic nuclei at 12 and 24 h. Further, ZEN treated SH-SY5Y cells showed a marked suppressive effect on the neuronal gene expression. Use of an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed the toxin-induced generation of ROS and also attenuated loss of MMP. Collectively, these results suggest that ROS is the main upstream signal leading to increased ZEN mediated neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tacrine (THA) is a competitive inhibitor of cholinesterase. Administration of THA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease results in a reversible hepatotoxicity in 30∼50% of patients, as indicated by elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. However, the intracellular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In our previous study, we found that THA induced cytotoxicity and mitochondria dysfunction by ROS generation and 8-OHdG formation in mitochondrial DNA in HepG2 cells. In this study, the mechanism underlying was further investigated. Our results demonstrated that THA induced dose-dependent apoptosis with cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3. THA-induced apoptosis was inhibited by treating cells with a ROS inhibitor, YCG063. In addition, we observed that THA led to an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization and release of cathepsin B. Pretreatment with CA-074Me, a specific cathepsin B inhibitor resulted in a significant but not complete decrease in tacrine-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that tacrine-induced cell apoptosis involves both mitochondrial damage and lysosomal membrane destabilization, and ROS is the critical factor that integrates tacrine-induced mitochondrial and lysosomal death pathways.Toxicology in Vitro 02/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sterigmatocystin (ST) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin that is commonly found in human food, animal feed and in the indoor environment. Although the correlation between ST exposure and lung cancer has been widely reported in many studies, the cytotoxicity of ST on human pulmonary cells is not yet fully understood. In the current study, we found that ST could induce DNA double-strand breaks in a human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B cells) and a human lung cancer cell line (A549 cells). In addition, the effects of ST on cell cycle arrest were complex and dependent on the tested ST concentration and cell type. Low concentrations of ST arrested cells in the G2/M phase in BEAS-2B cells and in the S phase in A549 cells, while at high concentration both cells lines were arrested in S and G2/M phases. Furthermore, we observed that the modulation of cyclins and CDK expression showed concomitant changes with cell cycle arrest upon ST exposure in BEAS-2B and A549 cells. In conclusion, ST induced DNA damage and affected key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation to trigger genomic instability, which may be a potential mechanism underlying the developmental basis of lung carcinogenesis.Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor