The tumour suppressor HACE1 controls cell migration by regulating Rac1 degradation.

Cell Signalling Group, Cancer Research UK Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 05/2012; DOI: 10.1038/onc.2012.189
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The small GTPase Rac1 is a key regulator of cell motility. Multiple mechanisms regulate Rac1 activity including its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Here, we identify the tumour suppressor HACE1 (HECT domain and Ankyrin repeat Containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 1) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for Rac1 degradation following activation by a migration stimulus. We show that HACE1 and Rac1 interaction is enhanced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signalling, a Rac activator and potent stimulus of cell migration. Furthermore, HACE1 catalyses the poly-ubiquitylation of Rac1 at lysine 147 following its activation by HGF, resulting in its proteasomal degradation. This negative feedback mechanism likely restricts cell motility. Consistent with this, HACE1 depletion is accompanied by increased total Rac1 levels and accumulation of Rac1 in membrane ruffles. Moreover, HACE1-depletion enhances cell migration independently of growth factor stimulation, which may have significance for malignant conversion. A non-ubiquitylatable Rac1 rescues the migration defect of Rac1-null cells to a greater extent than wild-type Rac1. These findings identify HACE1 as an antagonist of cell migration through its ability to degrade active Rac1.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.189.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase HACE1 is a tumour suppressor known to regulate Rac1 activity under stress conditions. HACE1 is increased in the serum of patients with heart failure. Here we show that HACE1 protects the heart under pressure stress by controlling protein degradation. Hace1 deficiency in mice results in accelerated heart failure and increased mortality under haemodynamic stress. Hearts from Hace1(-/-) mice display abnormal cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular dysfunction, accumulation of LC3, p62 and ubiquitinated proteins enriched for cytoskeletal species, indicating impaired autophagy. Our data suggest that HACE1 mediates p62-dependent selective autophagic turnover of ubiquitinated proteins by its ankyrin repeat domain through protein-protein interaction, which is independent of its E3 ligase activity. This would classify HACE1 as a dual-function E3 ligase. Our finding that HACE1 has a protective function in the heart in response to haemodynamic stress suggests that HACE1 may be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:3430. · 10.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Members of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases are characterized by a C-terminal HECT domain that catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to substrate proteins and by N-terminal extensions of variable length and domain architecture that determine the substrate spectrum of a respective HECT E3. Since their discovery in 1995, it has become clear that deregulation of distinct HECT E3s plays an eminent role in human disease or disease-related processes including cancer, cardiovascular and neurological disorders, viral infections, and immune response. Thus, a detailed understanding of structure-function aspects of HECT E3s as well as identification and characterization of substrates and regulators of HECT E3s is critical in developing new approaches in the treatment of respective diseases. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about mammalian HECT E3s, with a focus on their biological functions and roles in pathophysiology.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 01/2014; 1843(1):61. · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a key role in late onset diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington disease. Therefore, uncovering regulators of the antioxidant stress responses is important for understanding the course of these diseases. Indeed, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidative stress response, is deregulated in both cancer and neurodegeneration. Similar to NRF2, the tumor suppressor Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain and Ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 1 (HACE1) plays a protective role against stress-induced tumorigenesis in mice, but its roles in the antioxidative stress response or its involvement in neurodegeneration have not been investigated. To this end we examined Hace1 WT and KO mice and found that Hace1 KO animals exhibited increased oxidative stress in brain and that the antioxidative stress response was impaired. Moreover, HACE1 was found to be essential for optimal NRF2 activation in cells challenged with oxidative stress, as HACE1 depletion resulted in reduced NRF2 activity, stability, and protein synthesis, leading to lower tolerance against oxidative stress triggers. Strikingly, we found a reduction of HACE1 levels in the striatum of Huntington disease patients, implicating HACE1 in the pathology of Huntington disease. Moreover, ectopic expression of HACE1 in striatal neuronal progenitor cells provided protection against mutant Huntingtin-induced redox imbalance and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, by augmenting NRF2 functions. These findings reveal that the tumor suppressor HACE1 plays a role in the NRF2 antioxidative stress response pathway and in neurodegeneration.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor