The tumour suppressor HACE1 controls cell migration by regulating Rac1 degradation.
ABSTRACT The small GTPase Rac1 is a key regulator of cell motility. Multiple mechanisms regulate Rac1 activity including its ubiquitylation and subsequent degradation. Here, we identify the tumour suppressor HACE1 (HECT domain and Ankyrin repeat Containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 1) as an E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for Rac1 degradation following activation by a migration stimulus. We show that HACE1 and Rac1 interaction is enhanced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signalling, a Rac activator and potent stimulus of cell migration. Furthermore, HACE1 catalyses the poly-ubiquitylation of Rac1 at lysine 147 following its activation by HGF, resulting in its proteasomal degradation. This negative feedback mechanism likely restricts cell motility. Consistent with this, HACE1 depletion is accompanied by increased total Rac1 levels and accumulation of Rac1 in membrane ruffles. Moreover, HACE1-depletion enhances cell migration independently of growth factor stimulation, which may have significance for malignant conversion. A non-ubiquitylatable Rac1 rescues the migration defect of Rac1-null cells to a greater extent than wild-type Rac1. These findings identify HACE1 as an antagonist of cell migration through its ability to degrade active Rac1.Oncogene advance online publication, 21 May 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.189.
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ABSTRACT: Certain strains of Escherichia coli have been indicated as a risk factor for colon cancer. E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the human intestine that becomes pathogenic, especially in extraintestinal sites, following the acquisition of virulence factors, including the protein toxin CNF1. This Rho GTPases-activating toxin induces dysfunctions in transformed epithelial cells, such as apoptosis counteraction, pro-inflammatory cytokines' release, COX2 expression, NF-kB activation and boosted cellular motility. As cancer may arise when the same regulatory pathways are affected, it is conceivable to hypothesize that CNF1-producing E. coli infections can contribute to cancer development. This review focuses on those aspects of CNF1 related to transformation, with the aim of contributing to the identification of a new possible carcinogenic agent from the microbial world.Toxins 01/2013; 5(8):1462-74. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Hace1-HECT E3 ligase is a tumor suppressor that ubiquitylates the activated GTP-bound form of the Rho family GTPase Rac1, leading to Rac1 proteasomal degradation. Here we show that, in vertebrates, Hace1 targets Rac1 for degradation when Rac1 is localized to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase holoenzyme. This event blocks de novo reactive oxygen species generation by Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidases, and thereby confers cellular protection from reactive oxygen species-induced DNA damage and cyclin D1-driven hyper-proliferation. Genetic inactivation of Hace1 in mice or zebrafish, as well as Hace1 loss in human tumor cell lines or primary murine or human tumors, leads to chronic NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species elevation, DNA damage responses and enhanced cyclin D1 expression. Our data reveal a conserved ubiquitin-dependent molecular mechanism that controls the activity of Rac1-dependent NADPH oxidase complexes, and thus constitutes the first known example of a tumor suppressor protein that directly regulates reactive oxygen species production in vertebrates.Nature Communications 07/2013; 4:2180. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a key role in late onset diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington disease. Therefore, uncovering regulators of the antioxidant stress responses is important for understanding the course of these diseases. Indeed, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidative stress response, is deregulated in both cancer and neurodegeneration. Similar to NRF2, the tumor suppressor Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain and Ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase 1 (HACE1) plays a protective role against stress-induced tumorigenesis in mice, but its roles in the antioxidative stress response or its involvement in neurodegeneration have not been investigated. To this end we examined Hace1 WT and KO mice and found that Hace1 KO animals exhibited increased oxidative stress in brain and that the antioxidative stress response was impaired. Moreover, HACE1 was found to be essential for optimal NRF2 activation in cells challenged with oxidative stress, as HACE1 depletion resulted in reduced NRF2 activity, stability, and protein synthesis, leading to lower tolerance against oxidative stress triggers. Strikingly, we found a reduction of HACE1 levels in the striatum of Huntington disease patients, implicating HACE1 in the pathology of Huntington disease. Moreover, ectopic expression of HACE1 in striatal neuronal progenitor cells provided protection against mutant Huntingtin-induced redox imbalance and hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, by augmenting NRF2 functions. These findings reveal that the tumor suppressor HACE1 plays a role in the NRF2 antioxidative stress response pathway and in neurodegeneration.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor