Article

REV-ERB-erating nuclear receptor functions in circadian metabolism and physiology.

Department of Biology, Unit of Biochemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 5, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland.
Cell Research (Impact Factor: 10.53). 05/2012; 22(9):1319-21. DOI: 10.1038/cr.2012.81
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A hallmark of the mammalian circadian timing system is synchronization of physiology and behavior, but when this synchronization is disturbed, chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and depression may develop. Three new studies show that nuclear receptors of the Rev-Erb family impact the circadian oscillator and its metabolic output and this can be modified with specific agonists. Hence, resynchronization of metabolic pathways by manipulation of the circadian oscillator using REV-ERB-specific agonists may represent a feasible therapeutic concept to target diseases rooted in a misaligned circadian system.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
87 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The hepatic circadian clock plays a key role in the daily regulation of glucose metabolism, but the precise molecular mechanisms that coordinate these two biological processes are not fully understood. In this study, we identify a novel connection between the regulation of RORγ by the clock machinery and the diurnal regulation of glucose metabolic networks. We demonstrate that particularly at daytime, mice deficient in RORγ exhibit improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance due to reduced hepatic gluconeogenesis. This is associated with a reduced peak expression of several glucose metabolic genes critical in the control of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. Genome-wide cistromic profiling, promoter and mutation analysis support the concept that RORγ regulates the transcription of several glucose metabolic genes directly by binding ROREs in their promoter regulatory region. Similar observations were made in liver-specific RORγ-deficient mice suggesting that the changes in glucose homeostasis were directly related to the loss of hepatic RORγ expression. Altogether, our study shows that RORγ regulates several glucose metabolic genes downstream of the hepatic clock and identifies a novel metabolic function for RORγ in the diurnal regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis and insulin sensitivity. The inhibition of the activation of several metabolic gene promoters by an RORγ antagonist suggests that antagonists may provide a novel strategy in the management of metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004331. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the most prevalent among digestive system cancers. Carcinogenesis relies on disrupted control of cellular processes, such as metabolism, proliferation, DNA damage recognition and repair, and apoptosis. Cell, tissue, organ and body physiology is characterized by periodic fluctuations driven by biological clocks operating through the clock gene machinery. Dysfunction of molecular clockworks and cellular oscillators is involved in tumorigenesis, and altered expression of clock genes has been found in cancer patients. Epidemiological studies have shown that circadian disruption, that is, alteration of bodily temporal organization, is a cancer risk factor, and an increased incidence of colorectal neoplastic disease is reported in shift workers. In this review we describe the involvement of the circadian clock circuitry in colorectal carcinogenesis and the therapeutic strategies addressing temporal deregulation in colorectal cancer.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2014; 20(15):4197-4207. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα (encoded by NR1D1) has a critical role in metabolism and physiology as well as circadian rhythm. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of clock genes including NR1D1 to the secretion of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) from bovine uterine stromal (USCs) and epithelial cells (UECs) by modulating the expression of PTGS2. The circadian oscillation of clock genes in the cells was weak compared with that reported in rodents, but the expression of BMAL1, PER1, and NR1D1 was changed temporally by treatment with ovarian steroids. Significant expression of clock genes including NR1D1 was detected in USCs exposed to progesterone. NR1D1 was also significantly expressed in UECs exposed to estradiol. The expression of PTGS2 was suppressed in USCs exposed to progesterone, while the expression was initially suppressed in UECs exposed to estradiol and then increased after long-term exposure to estradiol. BMAL1 knockdown with specific siRNA caused a significant decrease in the transcript levels of NR1D1 and PTGS2 in USCs, but not in UECs. The production of PGF2α also decreased in USCs after BMAL1 knockdown, while its level did not significantly change in UECs. The transcript level of PTGS2 was increased by treatment with the antagonist of REV-ERBα in both cell types, but the agonist was ineffective. In these two cell types treated with the agonist or antagonist, the PGF2α production coincided well with the PTGS2 expression. Collectively, these results indicate that REV-ERBα plays an inhibitory role in the expression of PTGS2 in both bovine USCs and UECs treated with ovarian steroids.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 07/2014; · 1.76 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
39 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014