Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to glucose intolerance among Greenland's Inuit population.
ABSTRACT Intake of carbohydrates which elicit a large glycemic response is hypothesized to increase the risk of diabetes. However, studies assessing the relationship between glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) and diabetes are inconsistent. Only few studies have studied the relationship between GI and GL and markers of glucose metabolism, mostly in western populations.
To determine the relationship between GI and GL and indices of glucose metabolism and prevalence of diabetes in Greenland's Inuit population.
The Inuit Health in Transition Study is a geographically representative cross-sectional study among aged ≥18years. Diet was assessed using a 67-item food frequency questionnaire. Logistic and linear regression was used to assess the association between GI and GL and diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, HbA(1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2h plasma glucose, HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%β.
No association was found between GI and GL and diabetes. GL was significantly inversely associated with IFG (OR: 0.91 (0.84-0.98)). While GI was positively associated with FPG, GL was positively associated with both HOMA2-IR and HOMA2-%β and inversely associated with IFG.
These findings do not support a link between dietary GI or GL and risk of type 2 diabetes among Greenland's Inuit population.