Article

Achieving Universal Access for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis: Potential Prevention Impact of an Integrated Multi-Disease Prevention Campaign in Kenya

Treatment and Care Unit, Department of HIV/AIDS, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
AIDS research and treatment 05/2012; 2012:412643. DOI: 10.1155/2012/412643
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 2009, Government of Kenya with key stakeholders implemented an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign for water-borne diseases, malaria and HIV in Kisii District, Nyanza Province. The three day campaign, targeting 5000 people, included testing and counseling (HTC), condoms, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets, and water filters. People with HIV were offered on-site CD4 cell counts, condoms, co-trimoxazole, and HIV clinic referral. We analysed the CD4 distributions from a district hospital cohort, campaign participants and from the 2007 Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (KAIS). Of the 5198 individuals participating in the campaign, all received HTC, 329 (6.3%) tested positive, and 255 (5%) were newly diagnosed (median CD4 cell count 536 cells/μL). The hospital cohort and KAIS results included 1,284 initial CD4 counts (median 348/L) and 306 initial CD4 counts (median 550/μL), respectively (campaign and KAIS CD4 distributions P = 0.346; hospital cohort distribution was lower P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). A Nyanza Province campaign strategy including ART <350 CD4 cell count could avert approximately 35,000 HIV infections and 1,240 TB cases annually. Community-based integrated public health campaigns could be a potential solution to reach universal access and Millennium Development Goals.

0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency and predictors of hypertension linkage to care after implementation of a linkage intervention in rural Uganda. During a multidisease screening campaign for HIV, diabetes and hypertension in rural Uganda, hypertensive adults received education, appointment to a local health facility and travel voucher. We measured frequency and predictors of linkage to care, defined as visiting any health facility for hypertension management within 6 months. Predictors of linkage to care were calculated using collaborative-targeted maximum likelihood estimation (C-TMLE). Participants not linking were interviewed using a standardised instrument to determine barriers to care. Over 5 days, 2252 adults were screened for hypertension and 214 hypertensive adults received a linkage intervention for further management. Of these, 178 (83%) linked to care within 6 months (median = 22 days). Independent predictors of successful linkage included older age, female gender, higher education, manual employment, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, hypertension family history and referral to local vs. regional health centre. Barriers for patients who did not see care included expensive transport (59%) and feeling well (59%). A community health campaign that offered hypertension screening, education, referral appointment and travel voucher achieved excellent linkage to care (83%). Young adults, men and persons with low levels of formal education were among those least likely to seek care.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 02/2014; DOI:10.1111/tmi.12273 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are 3.4 million children infected with HIV worldwide, with up to 2.6 million eligible for treatment under current guidelines. However, roughly 70% of infected children are not receiving live-saving HIV care and treatment. Strengthening case finding through improved diagnosis strategies, and actively linking identified HIV-infected children to care and treatment is essential to ensuring that these children benefit from the care and treatment available to them. Without attention or advocacy, the majority of these children will remain undiagnosed and die from complications of HIV. In this article, we summarize the challenges of identifying HIV-infected infants and children, review currently available evidence and guidance, describe promising new strategies for case finding, and make recommendations for future research and interventions to improve identification of HIV-infected infants and children.
    AIDS (London, England) 11/2013; 27 Suppl 2:S235-45. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000099 · 6.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective national and global HIV responses require a significant expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based HTC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based HTC. PubMed was searched on 4 March 2013, clinical trial registries were searched on 3 September 2012, and Embase and the World Health Organization Global Index Medicus were searched on 10 April 2012 for studies including community-based HTC (i.e., HTC outside of health facilities). Randomised controlled trials, and observational studies were eligible if they included a community-based testing approach and reported one or more of the following outcomes: uptake, proportion receiving their first HIV test, CD4 value at diagnosis, linkage to care, HIV positivity rate, HTC coverage, HIV incidence, or cost per person tested (outcomes are defined fully in the text). The following community-based HTC approaches were reviewed: (1) door-to-door testing (systematically offering HTC to homes in a catchment area), (2) mobile testing for the general population (offering HTC via a mobile HTC service), (3) index testing (offering HTC to household members of people with HIV and persons who may have been exposed to HIV), (4) mobile testing for men who have sex with men, (5) mobile testing for people who inject drugs, (6) mobile testing for female sex workers, (7) mobile testing for adolescents, (8) self-testing, (9) workplace HTC, (10) church-based HTC, and (11) school-based HTC. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and the Cochrane Collaboration's "risk of bias" tool were used to assess the risk of bias in studies with a comparator arm included in pooled estimates. 117 studies, including 864,651 participants completing HTC, met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of people offered community-based HTC who accepted HTC was as follows: index testing, 88% of 12,052 participants; self-testing, 87% of 1,839 participants; mobile testing, 87% of 79,475 participants; door-to-door testing, 80% of 555,267 participants; workplace testing, 67% of 62,406 participants; and school-based testing, 62% of 2,593 participants. Mobile HTC uptake among key populations (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, female sex workers, and adolescents) ranged from 9% to 100% (among 41,110 participants across studies), with heterogeneity related to how testing was offered. Community-based approaches increased HTC uptake (relative risk [RR] 10.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.27-18.08), the proportion of first-time testers (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.42), and the proportion of participants with CD4 counts above 350 cells/µl (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74), and obtained a lower positivity rate (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.96), relative to facility-based approaches. 80% (95% CI 75%-85%) of 5,832 community-based HTC participants obtained a CD4 measurement following HIV diagnosis, and 73% (95% CI 61%-85%) of 527 community-based HTC participants initiated antiretroviral therapy following a CD4 measurement indicating eligibility. The data on linking participants without HIV to prevention services were limited. In low- and middle-income countries, the cost per person tested ranged from US$2-US$126. At the population level, community-based HTC increased HTC coverage (RR 7.07, 95% CI 3.52-14.22) and reduced HIV incidence (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.73-1.02), although the incidence reduction lacked statistical significance. No studies reported any harm arising as a result of having been tested. Community-based HTC achieved high rates of HTC uptake, reached people with high CD4 counts, and linked people to care. It also obtained a lower HIV positivity rate relative to facility-based approaches. Further research is needed to further improve acceptability of community-based HTC for key populations. HIV programmes should offer community-based HTC linked to prevention and care, in addition to facility-based HTC, to support increased access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42012002554 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
    PLoS Medicine 08/2013; 10(8):e1001496. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001496 · 14.00 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Download
19 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014