Small molecule drug discovery at the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

Translational Science and Technologies, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.
Experimental Diabetes Research (Impact Factor: 3.54). 01/2012; 2012:709893. DOI: 10.1155/2012/709893
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The therapeutic success of peptide glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has inspired discovery efforts aimed at developing orally available small molecule GLP-1 receptor agonists. Although the GLP-1 receptor is a member of the structurally complex class B1 family of GPCRs, in recent years, a diverse array of orthosteric and allosteric nonpeptide ligands has been reported. These compounds include antagonists, agonists, and positive allosteric modulators with intrinsic efficacy. In this paper, a comprehensive review of currently disclosed small molecule GLP-1 receptor ligands is presented. In addition, examples of "ligand bias" and "probe dependency" for the GLP-1 receptor are discussed; these emerging concepts may influence further optimization of known molecules or persuade designs of expanded screening strategies to identify novel chemical starting points for GLP-1 receptor drug discovery.

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