Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms and disorders.

Department of Psychiatry, National Aging Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
Menopause International 06/2012; 18(2):48-51. DOI: 10.1258/mi.2012.012013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to review published literature on the types and prevalences of premenstrual disorders and symptoms, and effects of these on activities of daily life and other parameters of burden of illness. The method involved review of the pertinent published literature. Premenstrual disorders vary in prevalence according to the definition or categorization. The most severe disorder being premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects 3-8% of women of reproductive age. This disorder focuses on psychological symptoms whereas global studies show that the most prevalent premenstrual symptoms are physical. Both psychological and physical symptoms affect women's activities of daily life. A considerable burden of illness has been shown to be associated with moderate to severe premenstrual disorders. In conclusion, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern to women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of lives.

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    ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cluster of physical and emotional changes that typically begins several days before the menstrual period that disappears quickly after menstruation. It seems that co-occurrence of depression increases the risk and severity of this syndrome. In this cross-sectional research, we evaluated an association between PMS and depression in medical students. A hundred female medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences that were available assigned for research. They were divided into two groups after administration of demographic questionnaire and PMS questionnaire made by researchers based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Technical Revision; group with or without PMS diagnosis. Then, they completed Beck's Depression Inventory. From 100 participants, 55% (n = 55) met the PMS criteria and 45% had no PMS. In the PMS group 30% (n = 17) had no depression; 38% (n = 21) had mild depression; 23% (n = 13) had moderate depression; and 7% (n = 4) had severe depression. In the group with no PMS 60% (n = 27) had no depression; 20% (n = 9) had mild depression; 17% (n = 8) had moderate depression; 2% (n = 1) had severe depression. The rate of depression was significantly higher in PMS group (p = 0.04). In this research, PMS had an elevated frequency in medical students. In students with PMS, rate of depression was higher than students without PMS.
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    ABSTRACT: In rats, hormonal fluctuations during the estrus cycle may have numerous behavioral and neurobiological consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of estrus cycles and citalopram on behavior, ultrasonic vocalizations, anxiety levels, and c-fos expression in rats. With this aim, the rats were grouped into two: (1) a control group (n=16); (2) a citalopram group (n=16), which received daily intraperitoneal 20mg/kg citalopram from baseline (D0) to the tenth day (D10). Behavioral analysis and ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recordings were made on D0 and D10. Next, the rats were further subgrouped according to estrus phases identified through a vaginal smear (8 proestrus rats and 8 non-proestrus rats, in each group). The rat's anxiety levels were analyzed with an Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and their c-fos expression was measured at the cingulate cortex, the amygdala, and the paraventricular thalamic nucleus. Our results showed that; the citalopram group showed significantly more grooming behaviors on D10 than the control group (p=0.002). USVs on D0, D10 and during the EPM did not show any significant differences between the groups. Proestrus rats in the control group showed significantly less anxiety-like behavior during the EPM than the non-proestrus rats in the control group (p=0.028 for time spent in open arms, and p=0.011 for entries into open arms). There was no significant difference in anxiety-like behavior between the control and citalopram groups, and between the proestrus and non-estrous rats in the citalopram group. C-fos expression at the amygdala (p=0.013) and the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (p=0.014) was significantly inhibited in the citalopram group. We concluded that estrus cycles have a significant effect on anxiety levels in rats, which may be suppressed behaviorally and neurobiologically by citalopram.
    Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2014.06.002 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and dysmenorrhea in Australia women and to examine whether there is population subgroups with distinct symptom trajectories. Study design: A prospective cohort study, including 9,671 young women random sampled from national Medicare database and followed up for 13 years, examined the prevalence, the trend and the symptom trajectories of the conditions. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of PMS and dysmenorrhea over time, their symptom trajectories, and the probability of symptom reporting at follow-up. Results The prevalence of PMS varied between 33-41% and that of dysmenorrhea between 21-26%. The probabilities of reporting PMS and dysmenorrhea were 0.75 (95% CI 0.73, 0.76) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.68, 0.72), respectively, among women who reported them in three previous consecutive surveys. Four unique trajectories were identified for both conditions. PMS was experienced by 80% of women during the study period, with normative (22.1%), late onset (21.9%), recovering (26.5%) and chronic (29.5%) groups revealed. Dysmenorrhea occurred in 60% of women with normative (38.3%), low (28.0%), recovering (17.2%) and chronic (16.5%) groups identified. Conclusions PMS and dysmenorrhea are common among young women. Both have relatively stable prevalence over time, but exhibit considerable variation at the individual level. Four subgroups of women who followed similar symptom trajectories were identified. PMS was experienced by 80% of women during the study period and it tended to be a long-lasting problem in many. Although 60% of women experienced dysmenorrhea, only a small group continuously reported it. Smoking and illicit drugs use, and smoking and obesity were more common among women with persistent PMS and dysmenorrhea respectively.
    Maturitas 06/2014; 78(2). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.03.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor