Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms and disorders.
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to review published literature on the types and prevalences of premenstrual disorders and symptoms, and effects of these on activities of daily life and other parameters of burden of illness. The method involved review of the pertinent published literature. Premenstrual disorders vary in prevalence according to the definition or categorization. The most severe disorder being premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects 3-8% of women of reproductive age. This disorder focuses on psychological symptoms whereas global studies show that the most prevalent premenstrual symptoms are physical. Both psychological and physical symptoms affect women's activities of daily life. A considerable burden of illness has been shown to be associated with moderate to severe premenstrual disorders. In conclusion, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern to women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of lives.
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ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms.Journal of Physical Therapy Science 07/2013; 25(7):761-764. DOI:10.1589/jpts.25.761 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inclusion of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) into the main text of the DSM has been a point of controversy for many years. The purpose of this article is to address the main concerns raised by opponents to its inclusion. Concerns are presented and countered in turn. To identify the most prevalent arguments against inclusion of PMDD, we searched MEDLINE (1966-2012), PsycINFO (1930-2012), the Internet, and reference lists of identified articles during September 1-17, 2012, using the keywords PMDD, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), DSM, DSM-5, concerns, controversy, women, political power, workforce, courts, and history. The search was restricted to English-language publications. A total of 55 articles were identified and included. The most pressing arguments against inclusion were grouped by similarity and addressed if they were reported 5 or more times. Our review of the sources yielded 38 concerns regarding PMDD; 6 concerns were reported at least 5 times and are addressed in this article. Evidence culled from historical and legal trends does not support the alleged societal use of PMS to harm women (eg, keeping women out of the workforce or using PMS against women in child custody disputes). Further, current epidemiologic research has answered all of the methodology criticisms of opponents. Studies have confirmed the existence of PMDD worldwide. The involvement of pharmaceutical companies in research has been questioned. However, irrespective of the level of association with industry, current research on PMDD has consistent results: PMDD exists in a minority of women. Historically, the pain and suffering of women have been dismissed, minimized, and negated. Similarly, women with PMDD have often had their experience invalidated. With the preponderance of evidence in its favor, PMDD has been placed in the main text of the DSM-5, opening the door for affected women to receive the attention full diagnostic status provides.The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2013; 75(1). DOI:10.4088/JCP.13cs08368 · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a cluster of physical and emotional changes that typically begins several days before the menstrual period that disappears quickly after menstruation. It seems that co-occurrence of depression increases the risk and severity of this syndrome. In this cross-sectional research, we evaluated an association between PMS and depression in medical students. A hundred female medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences that were available assigned for research. They were divided into two groups after administration of demographic questionnaire and PMS questionnaire made by researchers based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Technical Revision; group with or without PMS diagnosis. Then, they completed Beck's Depression Inventory. From 100 participants, 55% (n = 55) met the PMS criteria and 45% had no PMS. In the PMS group 30% (n = 17) had no depression; 38% (n = 21) had mild depression; 23% (n = 13) had moderate depression; and 7% (n = 4) had severe depression. In the group with no PMS 60% (n = 27) had no depression; 20% (n = 9) had mild depression; 17% (n = 8) had moderate depression; 2% (n = 1) had severe depression. The rate of depression was significantly higher in PMS group (p = 0.04). In this research, PMS had an elevated frequency in medical students. In students with PMS, rate of depression was higher than students without PMS.01/2014; 8(4):74-9.