Epidemiology of premenstrual symptoms and disorders

Department of Psychiatry, National Aging Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.
Menopause International 06/2012; 18(2):48-51. DOI: 10.1258/mi.2012.012013
Source: PubMed


The aim of this paper is to review published literature on the types and prevalences of premenstrual disorders and symptoms, and effects of these on activities of daily life and other parameters of burden of illness. The method involved review of the pertinent published literature. Premenstrual disorders vary in prevalence according to the definition or categorization. The most severe disorder being premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects 3-8% of women of reproductive age. This disorder focuses on psychological symptoms whereas global studies show that the most prevalent premenstrual symptoms are physical. Both psychological and physical symptoms affect women's activities of daily life. A considerable burden of illness has been shown to be associated with moderate to severe premenstrual disorders. In conclusion, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern to women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of lives.

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    • "Up to 90% of menstruating women may experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (Dennerstein et al., 2012) and approximately 20% to 40% experiences moderate to severe PMS that substantially impair functioning and relationships (Halbreich et al., 2003; Rapkin and Winer, 2009). A small proportion, 3–8%, suffers from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a severe form of PMS (Dennerstein et al., 2012). The core emotional symptoms characterising PMS include depressed mood, anxiety, affective lability, anger or irritability, and feeling out of control; and typical physical symptoms include bloating, breast tenderness and headache (Freeman, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is common among women of reproductive age. Limited studies have investigated the long-term association between illicit drug use and PMS. The 1973-1978 cohort from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a prospective cohort study, was followed up for 13-year from 2000 to 2012. Data were collected through self-reported questionnaires on all variables, including PMS, illicit drug use and a range of sociodemographic, lifestyle, reproductive and psychological factors. When the women were 22-27 years of age, over 40% use illicit drug in the last 12 months, 9% first used drug before age 15 years and approximately 35% reported PMS. Over the study period, the prevalence of drug use in the last 12 months declined whereas that of PMS remained fairly stable except an increase when they were 34-39 years old. Generalised estimating equations analysis showed that, compared to never drug users, significantly higher odds of reporting PMS were detected for illicit drug use in the last 12 months: multiple drugs (odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21, 1.43), exclusive marijuana (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08, 1.40). A higher odds of PMS was identified for age at first drug use before 15 years (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03, 1.40). Illicit drug use in the last 12 months, especially early age at first use and multiple drug use, is associated with increased risk of PMS. However current study is unable to prove causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 04/2015; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.03.037 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Premenstrual symptoms include at least one of the first four symptoms: 1) a depressed mood; 2) tension or anxiety; 3) lower back pain; 4) decreased activity; 5) changes in appetite; and 6) physical symptoms (breast tenderness, headaches, bloating, and muscle pain). Therefore, premenstrual symptoms are a frequent source of concern for women during their reproductive lives and moderate to severe symptoms impact on their quality of life7). To deal with menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, many therapies, including medication and thermotherapy, which are types of conservative therapy, and other self-treatment methods have been prescribed to alleviate symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of Kinesio taping and spiral taping on menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome, to investigate the efficacy of the two types of taping as methods for alleviating menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 34 unmarried women. The subjects were randomly divided into a Kinesio taping group, a spiral taping group and a control group. Subjects with a regular menstrual cycle underwent taping a total of six times; twice a week for about three weeks, starting from 14 days before menstruation and continuing until its end. Degrees of menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome were measured before the application of taping. [Results] The results revealed that Kinesio taping had significant effects on menstrual pain, while spiral taping was effective at alleviating both menstrual pain and premenstrual syndrome. [Conclusion] Both taping methods before menstruation brought significant relief to menstrual pain, which suggests that spiral taping is an effective method of alleviating premenstrual symptoms.
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science 07/2013; 25(7):761-764. DOI:10.1589/jpts.25.761 · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inclusion of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) into the main text of the DSM has been a point of controversy for many years. The purpose of this article is to address the main concerns raised by opponents to its inclusion. Concerns are presented and countered in turn. To identify the most prevalent arguments against inclusion of PMDD, we searched MEDLINE (1966-2012), PsycINFO (1930-2012), the Internet, and reference lists of identified articles during September 1-17, 2012, using the keywords PMDD, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), DSM, DSM-5, concerns, controversy, women, political power, workforce, courts, and history. The search was restricted to English-language publications. A total of 55 articles were identified and included. The most pressing arguments against inclusion were grouped by similarity and addressed if they were reported 5 or more times. Our review of the sources yielded 38 concerns regarding PMDD; 6 concerns were reported at least 5 times and are addressed in this article. Evidence culled from historical and legal trends does not support the alleged societal use of PMS to harm women (eg, keeping women out of the workforce or using PMS against women in child custody disputes). Further, current epidemiologic research has answered all of the methodology criticisms of opponents. Studies have confirmed the existence of PMDD worldwide. The involvement of pharmaceutical companies in research has been questioned. However, irrespective of the level of association with industry, current research on PMDD has consistent results: PMDD exists in a minority of women. Historically, the pain and suffering of women have been dismissed, minimized, and negated. Similarly, women with PMDD have often had their experience invalidated. With the preponderance of evidence in its favor, PMDD has been placed in the main text of the DSM-5, opening the door for affected women to receive the attention full diagnostic status provides.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 11/2013; 75(1). DOI:10.4088/JCP.13cs08368 · 5.50 Impact Factor
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