Linear enamel hypoplasia as an indicator of physiological stress in great apes: reviewing the evidence in light of enamel growth variation.
ABSTRACT Physiological stress, such as malnutrition or illness, can disrupt normal enamel growth, resulting in linear enamel hypoplasias (LEHs). Although ecological factors may contribute to LEH expression, other factors, such as surface abrasion and enamel growth variables, are also likely to be involved. Attention to these other factors is necessary before we can begin to understand what LEH might signify in terms of ecological sources of physiological stress in non-human primates. This study focuses on assessing the contribution of these other factors to variation in LEH expression within and across great ape taxa. Here, we present LEH data from unabraded crown regions in samples of seven great ape species. We analyze these data with respect to lateral enamel formation time and the angles that striae of Retzius make with the enamel surface, as these variables are expected to affect variation in LEH expression. We find that although the duration of enamel formation is associated with sex differences in LEH expression, it is not clearly related to taxonomic variation in LEH expression, and does not explain the low frequency of LEH in mountain gorillas found in this and a previous study. Our data on striae of Retzius angles suggest that these influence LEH expression along the tooth crown and may contribute to the consistently high frequencies of LEH seen in Pongo in this and previous studies. We suggest that future work aimed at understanding species variation in these angles is crucial to evaluating taxonomic patterns of LEH expression in great apes.
- Human Biology 01/1986; 57(4):699-711. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.Biometrics 04/1977; 33(1):159-74. · 1.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Methods of measuring tissue area from images of longitudinal thin tooth sections have been used to assess sexual dimorphism in the permanent dentition. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the extent of sexual dimorphism within the coronal tissue proportions of permanent mandibular canines and premolars, using area measurements of the enamel and dentine-pulp core. The sample consisted of embedded "half-tooth" sections from 45 individuals, all of known age-at-death and sex, collected from the St. Thomas' Anglican Church historic (1821-1874) cemetery site in Belleville, ON, Canada. The relative dentine-pulp area of the third premolars and canines displayed high levels of sexual dimorphism, as well as statistically significant mean differences between the sexes. The male canines and premolars have significantly more dentine than their female counterparts, as well as relatively more dentine with respect to overall crown size. The female canines and premolars have significantly more enamel relative to overall crown area than those of the males. These results suggest that relative area measures of crown tissues are more predictable measures of sexual dimorphism than absolute measures, and tissue proportions may remain constant despite intrasex variation in overall tooth crown size.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 06/2007; 133(1):735-40. · 2.48 Impact Factor