Body mass index and lung cancer risk: results from the ICARE study, a large, population-based case-control study.
ABSTRACT The association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer is still disputed because of possible residual confounding by smoking and preclinical weight loss in case-control studies. We examined this association using data from the multicenter ICARE study in France, a large, population-based case-control study.
A total of 2,625 incident lung cancer cases and 3,381 controls were included. Weight was collected at interview, 2 years before the interview, and at age 30. Lifetime smoking exposure was calculated using the comprehensive smoking index (CSI). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95 % confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and controlled for age, area, education, CSI, occupational exposure, previous chronic bronchitis, and parental history of lung cancer. We also examined the role of weight change. Analyses were stratified by smoking status and sex.
When compared with that of men with normal BMI 2 years before the interview, lung cancer aORs (95 % CI) among men with BMIs of <18.5, 25-29.9, 30-32.4, and ≥32.5 kg/m(2) were 2.7 (95 % CI 1.2-6.2), 0.9 (95 % CI 0.7-1.1), 0.8 (95 % CI 0.6-1.1), and 0.8 (95 % CI 0.6-1.0), respectively (p(trend) = 0.02). Results were more pronounced among current smokers and were similar in men and women. Weight gain over time was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer.
We found an inverse dose-dependent association between lung cancer risk and BMI 2 years prior to interview in current smokers. IMPACT STATEMENT: BMI might be an individual factor impacting the risk of lung cancer related to smoking's carcinogen-induced DNA damage.