A rabbit model for studying degeneration and regeneration properties of young striated muscle at different distraction rates.
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the histological changes in the muscle tissue after limb lengthening in skeletally immature rabbits and assessed the effect of different lengthening rates on the regeneration and degeneration properties of striated muscle. Thirteen different lengthening protocols were applied on a total of 16 male domestic white rabbits divided into four groups. The histopathological changes were analysed by a semiquantitative method according to the scoring system of Lee et al. (1993). After evaluation of the five main degenerative parameters (muscle atrophy, internalisation of muscle nuclei, degeneration of the muscle fibre, perimysial and endomysial fibrosis, haematomas), it is evident that rabbits subjected to limb lengthening at a rate of 3.2 mm/day showed more degenerative changes than those limb-lengthened at 0.8 or 1.6 mm/day. Our study showed that the regenerative mechanisms were not endless. If the daily lengthening rate reached the 3.2 mm/day limit, the regenerating ability of the muscle decreased, and signs of degeneration increased significantly.
Article: Skeletal muscle satellite cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form of control is to determine which of the many growth factors that can alter satellite cell behavior in vitro are at work in vivo. Little work has been done to determine what controls are at work after a regeneration response has been initiated. It seems likely that, after injury, growth factors are liberated through proteolytic activity and initiate an activation process whereby cells enter into a proliferative phase. After myofibers are formed, it also seems likely that satellite cell behavior is regulated through diffusible factors arising from the fibers rather than continuous control by circulating factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Ergebnisse der Physiologie 02/1994; 123:213-57. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Resective distraction osteogenesis is a new approach to treat segmental diaphyseal bone defects by primary limb shortening and secondary distraction osteogenesis from the same site. A rabbit model was introduced to compare the bone-regeneration characteristics of this technique with those of simple lengthening procedures. Twenty-four skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two equal groups. In the test group, limbs were lengthened after a 10-mm segmental diaphyseal bone resection and limb shortening. In the control group, a simple subperiosteal osteotomy for limb lengthening was performed without resection. New bone formation was evaluated mechanically, radiologically, histomorphometrically, and densitometrically. Bone bridging occurred in all animals. Normalized mechanical values for the newly reconstructed tibiae demonstrated similar torsional stiffness (71+/-3.3 compared with 71+/-8.2%; p = 0.95) and strength (64+/-5.3 compared with 68+/-7.3%; p = 0.66) in the two groups. The average normalized callus diameter was significantly greater in the test group than in the control group (p < 0.01). The remodeling index calculated from densitometry, however, showed a significantly less progressed stage of remodeling in the test group (p < 0.05). Histomorphometric analysis of the callus center supported this finding, showing significantly lower values for trabecular thickness (p < 0.05) and total bone volume (p < 0.01) in the test group. The results demonstrated the possibility of new bone formation after resection and monofocal shortening. This suggests a new therapeutic option to treat diaphyseal segmental bone defects.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 08/2000; 18(4):629-36. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to regenerate following myotrauma. Because adult myofibers are terminally differentiated, the regeneration of skeletal muscle is largely dependent on a small population of resident cells termed satellite cells. Although this population of cells was identified 40 years ago, little is known regarding the molecular phenotype or regulation of the satellite cell. The use of cell culture techniques and transgenic animal models has improved our understanding of this unique cell population; however, the capacity and potential of these cells remain ill-defined. This review will highlight the origin and unique markers of the satellite cell population, the regulation by growth factors, and the response to physiological and pathological stimuli. We conclude by highlighting the potential therapeutic uses of satellite cells and identifying future research goals for the study of satellite cell biology.Journal of Applied Physiology 09/2001; 91(2):534-51. · 3.48 Impact Factor