Translational Bioinformatics: Data-driven Drug Discovery and Development
ABSTRACT Internet-accessible computing power and data-sharing mandates now enable researchers to interrogate thousands of publicly available databases containing molecular, clinical, and epidemiological data. With emerging new approaches, translational bioinformatics can now provide answers to previously untouchable questions, ranging from detecting population signals of adverse drug reactions to clinical interpretation of the whole genome. There are challenges, including lack of access to some data sources and software, but there are also overwhelming doses of hopes and expectations.
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ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease. Endocapillary proliferation is associated with higher risk of progressive disease, and clinical studies suggest that corticosteroids mitigate this risk. However, corticosteroids are associated with protean cellular effects and significant toxicity. Furthermore the precise mechanism by which they modulate kidney injury in IgAN is not well delineated. To better understand molecular pathways involved in the development of endocapillary proliferation and to identify novel specific therapeutic targets, we evaluated the glomerular transcriptome of microdissected kidney biopsies from 22 patients with IgAN. Endocapillary proliferation was defined according to the Oxford scoring system independently by 3 nephropathologists. We analyzed mRNA expression using microarrays and identified transcripts differentially expressed in patients with endocapillary proliferation compared to IgAN without endocapillary lesions. Next, we employed both transcription factor analysis and in silico drug screening and confirmed that the endocapillary proliferation transcriptome is significantly enriched with pathways that can be impacted by corticosteroids. With this approach we also identified novel therapeutic targets and bioactive small molecules that may be considered for therapeutic trials for the treatment of IgAN, including resveratrol and hydroquinine. In summary, we have defined the distinct molecular profile of a pathologic phenotype associated with progressive renal insufficiency in IgAN. Exploration of the pathways associated with endocapillary proliferation confirms a molecular basis for the clinical effectiveness of corticosteroids in this subgroup of IgAN, and elucidates new therapeutic strategies for IgAN.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103413. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103413 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study presents a new recombinant protein that acts as a powerful antiviral (rAVLO-recombinant Antiviral protein of Lonomia obliqua). It was able to reduce the replication by 10(6) fold for herpes virus and by 10(4) fold for rubella virus. RT-PCR of viral RNA rAVLO treated infected cells also showed similar rate of inhibition in replication. The analysis of this protein by bioinformatics suggests that this protein is globular, secreted with a signal peptide and has the ability to bind to MHC class I. It was found that there are several protein binding sites with various HLA and a prevalence of α-helices in the N-terminal region (overall classified as a α/β protein type). BLAST similarity sequence search for corresponding cDNA did not reveal a similar sequence in Genbank, suggesting that it is from a novel protein family. In this study we have observed that this recombinant protein and hemolymph has a potent antiviral action. This protein was produced in a baculovirus/Sf-9 system. Therefore, these analyses suggest that this novel polypeptide is a candidate as a broad spectrum antiviral.Cytotechnology 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10616-014-9740-1 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the continued progression of the “omics” era, bioinformatics, a discipline concerned with the curation and interpretation of biological data by computational means, has seen widespread integration across life sciences. However, despite becoming very data rich disciplines in the past number of years, the role of bioinformatics in food and nutritional sciences is less appreciated. In this review, we present the current state of bioinformatics in food and nutritional sciences and offer exemplar templates from other fields where bioinformatic analyses have become an integral feature. Additionally, we propose the concept of a wiki-like food database that could greatly advance the capabilities of bioinformatics in food and nutritional research.Trends in Food Science & Technology 11/2013; 34(1):5–17. DOI:10.1016/j.tifs.2013.08.009 · 4.65 Impact Factor