Potent low toxicity inhibition of human melanogenesis by novel indole-containing octapeptides
Elixir Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 5941 Optical Court, San Jose, CA 95138, USA. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
(Impact Factor: 4.66).
05/2012; 1820(10):1481-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.05.003
Abnormal production and accumulation of melanin are characteristics of a number of skin disorders, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and melasma. Our objective was to develop and validate novel oligopeptides with potent inhibitory activity against mushroom and human tyrosinase with minimal toxicity toward melanocytes, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts.
A library of short sequence oligopeptides was docked against the crystal structure of mushroom tyrosinase to screen for favorable binding free energies and direct interaction with the catalytic pocket. The inhibitory activity of the octapeptides and hydroquinone (HQ) was assessed using mushroom and human tyrosinase and melanin content via human primary melanocytes. Effects on cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT assay and cytotoxicity via trypan blue exclusion.
Octapeptides P16-18 outperformed HQ, the benchmark of hypopigmenting agents, in all tested categories. Prolonged incubation of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, or melanocytes with 30-3000μM HQ led to 8- to 65-fold greater cell death than with octapeptides. After 6d of incubation with 30μM HQ, we observed 70±3% and 60±2% cell death in melanocytes and fibroblasts, respectively, versus minimal toxicity up to an octapeptide concentration of 3mM.
Octapeptides P16-18 are potent competitive tyrosinase inhibitors with minimal toxicity toward the major cell types of human skin.
The findings in our study suggest that all three novel octapeptides may serve as safe and efficacious replacements of HQ for the treatment of pigmentary disorders.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "The hyperpigmentation of the epidermis and dermis has been demonstrated to depend on either increased numbers of melanocytes or the activity of the tyrosinase enzyme (9). The accumulation of excessive epidermal pigmentation results in various undesirable dermatological disorders, including melasma associated with age, freckling, age spots and sites of actinic damage (10). As the overproduction of melanin is an unexpected phenomenon, tyrosinase inhibitors have become increasingly important in medication and in cosmetics to prevent hyperpigmentation (11,12). "
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ABSTRACT: Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) has long been used as a medicinal herb for a number of therapeutic activities. In the present study, the cytotoxicities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of marigold flowers and their inhibitory effects on elastase and tyrosinase enzymes were investigated. An MTT assay was performed to measure the cytotoxicity of these two extracts on the H460 lung cancer and the Caco-2 colon cancer cell lines. An elastase assay kit, based on the digestion of a non-fluorescent elastin substrate to highly fluorescent fragments by elastase, was used for the elastase inhibition assay. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was investigated using the dopachrome method with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as a substrate. The data obtained in this study demonstrated that the extracts were nontoxic to H460 and Caco-2 cell lines. The elastase inhibition activities of ethanol (250 μg/ml) and ethyl acetate (125 μg/ml) extracts were found to be significantly higher than that of the negative control. The tyrosinase inhibition activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, in terms of the mean inhibition concentration (IC50), were 1,078 and 1,467 μg/ml, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the present study has demonstrated for the first time that marigold flower extracts possess tyrosinase inhibition activity. The activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of marigold flowers were investigated in vitro and indicated that these extracts possess useful properties that may be of interest for cosmetic development.
Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2014; 7(1):246-250. DOI:10.3892/etm.2013.1373 · 1.27 Impact Factor
Available from: pubs.acs.org
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ABSTRACT: The inhibitory activity of a broad group of known metalloenzyme inhibitors against a panel of metalloenzymes was evaluated. Clinically approved inhibitors were selected as well as several other reported metalloprotein inhibitors, in order to represent a broad range of metal binding groups (MBGs), including hydroxamic acid, carboxylate, hydroxypyridinonate, thiol, and N- hydroxyurea functional groups. A panel of metalloenzymes, including carbonic anhydrase (hCAII), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), histone deacetylase (HDAC-2), and tyrosinase (TY) was selected based on their clinical importance for a range of pathologies. In addition, each inhibitor was evaluated for its ability to remove Fe3+ from holo-transferrin to gauge the ability of the inhibitors to access Fe3+ from a primary transport protein. The results show that the metalloenzyme inhibitors are quite selective for their intended targets, suggesting that despite their ability to bind metal ions, metalloprotein inhibitors are not prone to widespread off-target enzyme inhibition activity.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2013; 56(20). DOI:10.1021/jm401053m · 5.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperpigmentation disorders are of social and cosmetic concerns to many individuals due to their prevalent locations on highly visible parts of the body. Topical formulation containing hydroquinone is the most widely used remedy for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders. However, reports of side effects in long-term usage have raised concerns for its use in cosmetic products. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop a safe and effective alternative to treat hyperpigmentation disorders. The objective of the current study is to investigate the de-pigmenting efficacy of 4-hexyl-1,3-phenylenediol in various in vitro models and in a randomized controlled clinical study. We showed that 4-hexyl-1,3-phenylenediol significantly reduced melanogenesis in primary human melanocytes, murine melanoma cells, and pigmented human epidermal equivalents. It was determined that the reduction in melanogenesis is mediated through inhibition of tyrosinase enzyme activity and protein expression. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition of melanogenesis is reversible and is not associated with cellular toxicity in melanocytes. In addition, significant improvements in key clinical parameters such as overall skin lightening, appearance of spots on the cheeks, overall contrast between spots and surrounding skin, and overall pigmentation size were detected in a double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical study. In conclusion, our findings clearly demonstrated the potency of 4-hexyl-1,3-phenylenediol in modulating skin pigmentation, and it is safe and well tolerated after 12-week topical application.
Archives for Dermatological Research 01/2014; 306(5). DOI:10.1007/s00403-014-1439-9 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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