Improving the Prediction of Stroke or Death After Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) by Adding Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Lesions and TIA Etiology to the ABCD2 Score.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the addition of transient ischemic attack (TIA) etiology and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the ABCD2 score, creating the ABCDE+ score, to improve the predictive ability of stroke risk or death at 6 months after TIA. We performed a cohort study of 150 consecutive patients with TIA. All patients underwent DWI and all had an etiologic workup and were followed up for 6 months. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the scores' ability to predict the outcome of stroke or death. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the measured variables and subsequent stroke or death. Thirty patients (20%) experienced future stroke, and 12 patients (8%) died within the 6-month follow-up. A comparison of AUCs demonstrated the superiority of the ABCDE+ score over the ABCD2 score for predicting stroke (0.64 vs 0.60) and for predicting death (0.62 vs 0.56). ABCD2 score >4, ABCDE+ score >6, large-artery disease, and lesions detected on DWI were found to be independent predictors of future stroke, and ABCDE+ score >6, age, and heart disease were independent predictors of death. We conclude that incorporating DWI positivity and etiology of TIA into the ABCD2 score can improve the ability to predict stroke and death within 6 months after TIA.
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ABSTRACT: Many of critically ill patients receive medical care for prolonged periods in emergency department (ED). This study is the evaluation of efficiency of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scoring system in predicting mortality rate in these patients. This study was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in Tehran, Iran. One hundred subjects were enrolled in the study. Cases were chosen from patients in need of intensive care unit (ICU) bed who were kept in the ED. The APACHE III scores and predicted and observed mortality rates were calculated using the information from patients' files, interviews with the patients' families, and performing required physical examinations and laboratory tests. The age of the patients and the ED length of stay were 66.07 (±19.92) years and 5.11 (±3.79) days, respectively. The mean (±SD) of APACHE III score of the patients was 58.89 (±18.24). The predicted mortality rate was calculated to be 32.73%, whereas the observed mortality rate was 55%. The mean (±SD) of APACHE III score of survivors and nonsurvivors was 48.63 (±16.35) and 67.63 (±14.84), respectively (P < .001). Furthermore, the ED length of stay was 3.20 (±1.34) and 6.57 (±4.4) days in survivors vs nonsurvivors, respectively (P < .001). The APACHE III score and ED lengths of stay were higher in this study compared with other studies. This could be ascribed to more critical patients presenting to the study center and also limited ICU bed availability. This study was indicative of applicability of APACHE III scoring system in evaluating the quality of care and prognosis of ED patients in need of ICU.The American journal of emergency medicine 10/2011; 30(7):1141-5. · 1.54 Impact Factor