Article

A controlled study of a simulated workplace laboratory for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Adult ADHD, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, United States.
Psychiatry Research (Impact Factor: 2.68). 05/2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.04.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite an extant literature documenting that adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for significant difficulties in the workplace, there is little documentation of the underlying factors associated with these impairments. The main aim of this study was to examine specific deficiencies associated with ADHD on workplace performance in a simulated workplace laboratory relative to controls. Participants were 56 non-medicated young adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 63 age and sex matched controls without ADHD. Participants spent 10h in a workplace simulation laboratory. Areas assessed included: (1) simulated tasks documented in a government report (SCANS) often required in workplace settings (taxing vigilance; planning; cooperation; attention to detail), (2) observer ratings, and (3) self-reports. Robust findings were found in the statistically significant differences on self-report of ADHD symptoms found between participants with ADHD and controls during all workplace tasks and periods of the workday. Task performance was found to be deficient in a small number of areas and there were few statistically significant differences identified by observer ratings. Symptoms reported by participants with ADHD in the simulation including internal restlessness, intolerance of boredom and difficulty maintaining vigilance were significant and could adversely impact workplace performance over the long-term.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
111 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several theoretical models suggest that the core deficit of ADHD is a deficiency in response inhibition. While neuropsychological deficits in response inhibition are well documented in ADHD children, research on these deficits in adult ADHD populations is minimal. Twenty-five adult ADHD patients, 15 anxiety-disordered adult patients, and 30 normal adults completed three neuropsychological tests of response inhibition: the Continuous Performance Test, Posner Visual Orienting Test, and the Stop Signal Task. ADHD adults demonstrated response inhibition performance deficits when compared to both normal adults and anxiety disordered adults only on the Continuous Performance Test. A similar pattern of differences was not observed on the other two neuropsychological tests. Differing results between tasks may be due to differences in test reliability, task parameters, or the targeted area of brain functioning assessed by each test.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 07/2001; 23(3):362-71. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite growing interest in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about its prevalence or correlates. A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability subsample (N=3,199) of 18-44-year-old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 respondents, oversampling those with positive screen results. Multiple imputation was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. The estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD was 4.4%. Significant correlates included being male, previously married, unemployed, and non-Hispanic white. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with many other DSM-IV disorders assessed in the survey and was associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases were untreated, although many individuals had obtained treatment for other comorbid mental and substance-related disorders. Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 05/2006; 163(4):716-23. · 14.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has remained controversial. This paper reviews the empirical evidence to date as to whether the diagnosis of ADHD in adults is valid and consistent with the childhood syndrome. Evidence of descriptive, divergent, predictive, and concurrent validity were examined. The available literature provides evidence that adult ADHD can be reliably diagnosed and that the diagnosis confers considerable power to forecast complications and treatment response. Studies of genetic transmission, specific treatment responses, and abnormalities in brain structure and function in affected individuals are also consistent with studies in childhood ADHD. There is converging evidence that adult ADHD is a not rare, valid clinical diagnosis. In addition, studies suggest that adult and child patients with ADHD may share a similar treatment-responsive, underlying neurobiological substrate.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 02/1998; 59 Suppl 7:59-68. · 5.81 Impact Factor