Runner's knowledge of their foot type: Do they really know?

Department of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, University of Technology, Munich, Germany
The Foot 05/2012; 22(3):205-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.foot.2012.04.008
Source: PubMed


The use of correct individually selected running shoes may reduce the incidence of running injuries. However, the runner needs to be aware of their foot anatomy to ensure the "correct" footwear is chosen.
The purpose of this study was to compare the individual runner's knowledge of their arch type to the arch index derived from a static footprint.
We examined 92 recreational runners with a mean age of 35.4±11.4 (12-63) years. A questionnaire was used to investigate the knowledge of the runners about arch height and overpronation. A clinical examination was undertaken using defined criteria and the arch index was analysed using weight-bearing footprints.
Forty-five runners (49%) identified their foot arch correctly. Eighteen of the 41 flat-arched runners (44%) identified their arch correctly. Twenty-four of the 48 normal-arched athletes (50%) identified their arch correctly. Three subjects with a high arch identified their arch correctly. Thirty-eight runners assessed themselves as overpronators; only four (11%) of these athletes were positively identified. Of the 34 athletes who did not categorize themselves as overpronators, four runners (12%) had clinical overpronation.
The findings of this research suggest that runners possess poor knowledge of both their foot arch and dynamic pronation.

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Available from: Erik Hohmann, Jan 10, 2015
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    • "This leads to a lack of early foot problem recognition. Furthermore, most of the people are not aware of their own foot types [6], and if unsuitable footwear is selected the foot condition will worsen the situation. For these reasons, it is necessary to investigate the characteristics of different foot types to automatically detect foot types. "
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    ABSTRACT: Motion characteristics of CoP (Centre of Pressure, the point of application of the resultant ground reaction force acting on the plate) are useful for foot type characteristics detection. To date, only few studies have investigated the nonlinear characteristics of CoP velocity and acceleration during the stance phase. The aim of this study is to investigate whether CoP regularity is different among four foot types (normal foot, pes valgus, hallux valgus and pes cavus); this might be useful for classification and diagnosis of foot injuries and diseases. To meet this goal, sample entropy, a measure of time-series regularity, was used to quantify the CoP regularity of four foot types. One hundred and sixty five subjects that had the same foot type bilaterally (48 subjects with healthy feet, 22 with pes valgus, 47 with hallux valgus, and 48 with pes cavus) were recruited for this study. A Footscan(R) system was used to collect CoP data when each subject walked at normal and steady speed. The velocity and acceleration in medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, and resultant velocity and acceleration were derived from CoP. The sample entropy is the negative natural logarithm of the conditional probability that a subseries of length m that matches pointwise within a tolerance r also matches at the next point. This was used to quantify variables of CoP velocity and acceleration of four foot types. The parameters r (the tolerance) and m (the matching length) for sample entropy calculation have been determined by an optimal method. It has been found that in order to analyze all CoP parameters of velocity and acceleration during the stance phase of walking gait, for each variable there is a different optimal r value. On the contrary, the value m=4 is optimal for all variables.Sample entropies of both velocity and acceleration in AP direction were highly correlated with their corresponding resultant variables for r>0.91. The sample entropy of the velocity in AP direction was moderately correlated with the one of the acceleration in the same direction (r>=0.673), as well as with the resultant acceleration (r>=0.660). The sample entropy of resultant velocity was moderately correlated with the one of the acceleration in AP direction, as well as with the resultant acceleration (for the both r>=0.689). Moderate correlations were found between variables for the left foot and their corresponding variables for the right foot.Sample entropies of AP velocity, resultant velocity, AP acceleration, and resultant acceleration of the right foot as well as AP velocity and resultant velocity of the left foot were, respectively, significantly different among the four foot types. It can be concluded that the sample entropy of AP velocity (or the resultant velocity) of the left foot, ML velocity, resultant velocity, ML acceleration and resultant acceleration could serve for evaluation of foot types or selection of appropriate footwear.
    BioMedical Engineering OnLine 10/2013; 12(1):101. DOI:10.1186/1475-925X-12-101 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    DESCRIPTION: Background: In ballet dancing high demand is put on foot performance and several studies have examined foot related injuries but the effect of intensive ballet training on the foot geometry has not been examined so far. The goal of the study was to determine whether female ballet dancers show differences in contact area and arch index compared to normal females in gait. Methods: Four non-professional ballet dancers and four matched control subjects with an average age of 26 years (± 3.78 SD), a height of 1.68 m (± 7.04 SD) and a weight of 61 kg (± 6.87 SD) were assessed by gait evaluation system (emed-x, Novel), each side being measured three times. Outcome measures were the mean contact area of the entire foot of all walks and the computed arch index. Assessed anthropometric data was used to match the ballet dancers with the control subjects based on the Body Mass Index [BMI]. Statistical analysis was done descriptively. Results: Both groups showed similar results with an average arch index of 0.19 ± 0.07 SD for the ballet dancers and 0.20 ± 0.00 SD for the control subjects. The difference of contact areas between two groups (116.7 cm2 and 117.5 cm2) was small with 0.7 % difference. Discussion: The results showed no differences in the two groups. Still, in most outcomes the ballet dancers presented higher variations which could support the presumption that ballet training can change the foot geometry but due to the small sample size no final conclusion could be drawn.