Genome-wide identification and analysis of microRNA responding to long-term waterlogging in crown roots of maize seedlings
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression involving in plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the regulation of miRNA in the morphological response to waterlogging is poorly understood in maize. In this study, we detected miRNAs and their targets that expressed in waterlogged crown roots of maize seedlings in two inbred lines (Hz32 and Mo17) by RNA sequencing. A total of 61 mature miRNAs were found including 36 known maize (zma) miRNAs and 25 potential novel miRNA candidates. Comparison of miRNA expression in both waterlogged and control crown roots revealed 32 waterlogging-responsive miRNAs, most were consistently downregulated under waterlogging in the two inbred lines. We identified the miRNA targets through degradome sequencing. Many known miRNA targets involving in transcription regulation and reactive oxygen species elimination were found in the degradome libraries, and 17 targets of 10 newly detected miRNAs were identified as well. Moreover, the miRNA-mediated pathways that respond to waterlogging and regulate the induction of crown roots were discussed. This study is a comprehensive survey of responsive miRNAs in waterlogged maize crown roots. The results will help to understand the miRNA expression in response to waterlogging and miRNA-mediated regulation of morphological adaptation to waterlogging in maize.
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ABSTRACT: Background and AimsMicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the responses and adaptation of plants to many stresses including low nitrogen (LN). Characterizing relevant miRNAs will improve our understanding of nitrogen (N) use efficiency and LN tolerance and thus contribute to sustainable maize production. The objective of this study was to identify novel and known miRNAs and their targets involved in the response and adaptation of maize (Zea mays) to LN stress.Methods MiRNAs and their targets were identified by combined analysis of deep sequencing of small RNA and degradome libraries. The identity of target genes was confirmed by gene-specific RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) and by quantitative expression analysis.Key ResultsOver 150 million raw reads of small RNA and degradome sequence data were generated. A total of 46 unique mature miRNA sequences belonging to 23 maize miRNA families were sequenced. Eighty-five potentially new miRNAs were identified, with corresponding miRNA* also identified for 65 of them. Twenty-five new miRNAs showed >2-fold relative change in response to LN. In addition to known miR169 species, two novel putative miR169 species were identified. Deep sequencing of miRNAs and the degradome, and RLM-RACE and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of their targets showed that miRC10- and miRC68-mediated target cleavage may play a major role among miR169 families in the adaptation to LN by maize seedlings.Conclusions Small RNA and degradome sequencing combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and RLM-RACE verification enabled the efficient identification of miRNAs and their target genes. The generated data sets and the two novel miR169 species that were identified will contribute to our understanding of the physiological basis of adaptation to LN stress in maize plants.Annals of Botany 06/2013; DOI:10.1093/aob/mct133 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waterlogging of plants leads to low oxygen levels (hypoxia) in the roots and causes a metabolic switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic fermentation that results in rapid changes in gene transcription and protein synthesis. Our research seeks to characterize the microRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks associated with short-term waterlogging. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate many genes involved in growth, development and various biotic and abiotic stress responses. To characterize the involvement of miRNAs and their targets in response to short-term hypoxia conditions, a quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay was used to quantify the expression of the 24 candidate mature miRNA signatures (22 known and 2 novel mature miRNAs, representing 66 miRNA loci) and their 92 predicted targets in three inbred Zea mays lines (waterlogging tolerant Hz32, mid-tolerant B73, and sensitive Mo17). Based on our studies, miR159, miR164, miR167, miR393, miR408 and miR528, which are mainly involved in root development and stress responses, were found to be key regulators in the post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms under short-term waterlogging conditions in three inbred lines. Further, computational approaches were used to predict the stress and development related cis-regulatory elements on the promoters of these miRNAs; and a probable miRNA-mediated gene regulatory network in response to short-term waterlogging stress was constructed. The differential expression patterns of miRNAs and their targets in these three inbred lines suggest that the miRNAs are active participants in the signal transduction at the early stage of hypoxia conditions via a gene regulatory network; and crosstalk occurs between different biochemical pathways.PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39786. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039786 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is known to be affected by waterlogging, the genetic basis of waterlogging tolerance by rapeseed is largely unknown. In this study, the transcriptome under 0 h and 12 h of waterlogging was assayed in the roots of ZS9, a tolerant variety, using digital gene expression (DGE). A total of 4432 differentially expressed genes were identified, indicating that the response to waterlogging in rapeseed is complicated. The assignments of the annotated genes based on GO (Gene Ontology) revealed there were more genes induced under waterlogging in "oxidation reduction", "secondary metabolism", "transcription regulation", and "translation regulation"; suggesting these four pathways are enhanced under waterlogging. Analysis of the 200 most highly expressed genes illustrated that 144 under normal conditions were down-regulated by waterlogging, while up to 191 under waterlogging were those induced in response to stress. The expression of genes involved under waterlogging is mediated by multiple levels of transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation, including phosphorylation and protein degradation; in particular, protein degradation might be involved in the negative regulation in response to this stress. Our results provide new insight into the response to waterlogging and will help to identify important candidate genes.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2013; 14(2):2637-51. DOI:10.3390/ijms14022637 · 2.34 Impact Factor