MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical post-transcriptional modulators of gene expression involving in plant responses to abiotic stress. However, the regulation of miRNA in the morphological response to waterlogging is poorly understood in maize. In this study, we detected miRNAs and their targets that expressed in waterlogged crown roots of maize seedlings in two inbred lines (Hz32 and Mo17) by RNA sequencing. A total of 61 mature miRNAs were found including 36 known maize (zma) miRNAs and 25 potential novel miRNA candidates. Comparison of miRNA expression in both waterlogged and control crown roots revealed 32 waterlogging-responsive miRNAs, most were consistently downregulated under waterlogging in the two inbred lines. We identified the miRNA targets through degradome sequencing. Many known miRNA targets involving in transcription regulation and reactive oxygen species elimination were found in the degradome libraries, and 17 targets of 10 newly detected miRNAs were identified as well. Moreover, the miRNA-mediated pathways that respond to waterlogging and regulate the induction of crown roots were discussed. This study is a comprehensive survey of responsive miRNAs in waterlogged maize crown roots. The results will help to understand the miRNA expression in response to waterlogging and miRNA-mediated regulation of morphological adaptation to waterlogging in maize.
"We also identified 57 new target genes of conserved miRNAs in maize (Table 3). Among the 127 miRNA target genes, 67 (53%) had been predicted previously , 56 (44%) cross-validated with other degradome libraries prepared from plants under different stress conditions [25,28-30], and 8 have been validated by 5′-RACE and/or genetic experiments [25,28,30,32,33,36]. The targets of conserved miRNAs were highly abundant in the four sequenced target libraries, and were often classified as category 0, 1, or 2 targets (Table 3, Additional file 11). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ~22 nt RNAs that play important regulatory roles in many aspects of plant biology, including metabolism, hormone response, epigenetic control of transposable elements, and stress response. Extensive studies of miRNAs have been performed in model plants such as rice and Arabidopsis thaliana. In maize, most miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed and identified by clearly different treatments, such as response to low nitrate, salt and drought stress. However, little is known about miRNAs involved in maize ear development. The objective of this study is to identify conserved and novel miRNAs and their target genes by combined small RNA and degradome sequencing at four inflorescence developmental stages.
We used deep-sequencing, miRNA microarray assays and computational methods to identify, profile, and describe conserved and non-conserved miRNAs at four ear developmental stages, which resulted in identification of 22 conserved and 21-maize-specific miRNA families together with their corresponding miRNA*. Comparison of miRNA expression in these developmental stages revealed 18 differentially expressed miRNA families. Finally, a total of 141 genes (251 transcripts) targeted by 102 small RNAs including 98 miRNAs and 4 ta-siRNAs were identified by genomic-scale high-throughput sequencing of miRNA cleaved mRNAs. Moreover, the differentially expressed miRNAs-mediated pathways that regulate the development of ears were discussed.
This study confirmed 22 conserved miRNA families and discovered 26 novel miRNAs in maize. Moreover, we identified 141 target genes of known and new miRNAs and ta-siRNAs. Of these, 72 genes (117 transcripts) targeted by 62 differentially expressed miRNAs may attribute to the development of maize ears. Identification and characterization of these important classes of regulatory genes in maize may improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling ear development.
"Recently developed high-throughput sequencing strategies have greatly expanded the depth of miRNA cloning coverage [8,9]. In addition to model species, more sRNAs have been identified from crop plants such as rice [10-12], maize [13,14], and wheat [15,16]. Studies of plant miRNAs have indicated that this group of regulatory molecules plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes, e.g., general plant development [17,18] and responses to environmental signals [10,19-21]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) that down-regulate target genes by mRNA degradation or translational repression. Numerous plant miRNAs have been identified. Evidence is increasing for their crucial roles during plant development. In the globally important crop of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the process by which grains are formed determines yield and end-use quality. However, little is known about miRNA-mediated developmental regulation of grain production. Here, we applied high-throughput sRNA sequencing and genome-wide mining to identify miRNAs potentially involved in the developmental regulation of wheat grains.
Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from developing grains sampled at 5, 15, 25, and 30 days after pollination (DAP). Through integrative analysis, we identified 605 miRNAs (representing 540 families) and found that 86 are possibly involved in the control of grain-filling. Additionally, 268 novel miRNAs (182 families) were identified, with 18 of them also potentially related to that maturation process. Our target predictions indicated that the 104 grain filling-associated miRNAs might target a set of wheat genes involved in various biological processes, including the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins, transcription, cellular transport, cell organization and biogenesis, stress responses, signal transduction, and phytohormone signaling. Together, these results demonstrate that the developmental steps by which wheat grains are filled is correlated with miRNA-mediated gene regulatory networks.
We identified 605 conserved and 268 novel miRNAs from wheat grains. Of these, 104 are potentially involved in the regulation of grain-filling. Our dataset provides a useful resource for investigating miRNA-mediated regulatory mechanisms in cereal grains, and our results suggest that miRNAs contribute to this regulation during a crucial phase in determining grain yield and flour quality.
"Eighty-five potentially new miRNAs, which had not been registered on miRBase (release 19), were identified from four small RNA sequencing libraries (Supplementary Data Table S2). Compared with novel maize miRNAs identified in the recent literature (Jiao et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011; Ding et al., 2012; Zhang et al., 2012; Zhao et al., 2012; Zhai et al., 2013), 55 out of 85 potentially new miRNAs identified in this study were first reported. The corresponding miRNA*s were also identified for 65 of these potentially new miRNAs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimsMicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the responses and adaptation of plants to many stresses including low nitrogen (LN). Characterizing relevant miRNAs will improve our understanding of nitrogen (N) use efficiency and LN tolerance and thus contribute to sustainable maize production. The objective of this study was to identify novel and known miRNAs and their targets involved in the response and adaptation of maize (Zea mays) to LN stress.Methods
MiRNAs and their targets were identified by combined analysis of deep sequencing of small RNA and degradome libraries. The identity of target genes was confirmed by gene-specific RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) and by quantitative expression analysis.Key ResultsOver 150 million raw reads of small RNA and degradome sequence data were generated. A total of 46 unique mature miRNA sequences belonging to 23 maize miRNA families were sequenced. Eighty-five potentially new miRNAs were identified, with corresponding miRNA* also identified for 65 of them. Twenty-five new miRNAs showed >2-fold relative change in response to LN. In addition to known miR169 species, two novel putative miR169 species were identified. Deep sequencing of miRNAs and the degradome, and RLM-RACE and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of their targets showed that miRC10- and miRC68-mediated target cleavage may play a major role among miR169 families in the adaptation to LN by maize seedlings.Conclusions
Small RNA and degradome sequencing combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and RLM-RACE verification enabled the efficient identification of miRNAs and their target genes. The generated data sets and the two novel miR169 species that were identified will contribute to our understanding of the physiological basis of adaptation to LN stress in maize plants.
Annals of Botany 06/2013; 112(3). DOI:10.1093/aob/mct133 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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