Ferroptosis: An Iron-Dependent Form of Nonapoptotic Cell Death

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, Northwest Corner Building, MC 4846, New York, NY 10027, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 05/2012; 149(5):1060-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.03.042
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.

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Available from: Darpan Patel, Mar 30, 2014
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    • "Ferroptosis may also occur by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Erasin, an oncogenic RAS-selective lethal compound, as well as the kinase inhibitor sorafenib have been identified to inhibit the cysteine–glutamate antiporter complex x c − and to induce irondependent , oxidative cell death (Dixon et al. 2012, 2014). Ferrostatin- 1 and deferoxamine are iron-depleting agents that inhibit ferroptosis (Louandre et al. 2013; Skouta et al. 2014). "
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