Primary Study of the Use of a Shape-Memory Alloy Distraction Device in the Dog Mandible for Alveolar Ridge Distraction: Determination of Osteotomy Techniques and Evaluation of Osteogenesis Outcome.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: The titanium-nickel shape-memory alloy distractor is a new kind of alveolar ridge distraction device that can be completely buried and self-activated. To evaluate this new device, the present study compared the effects of 2 osteotomy techniques and investigated the osteogenesis outcome by measuring the bone mineral density and biomechanical properties of newly generated bone tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult mongrel canines (n = 18) were randomly divided into 3 groups. All the mandibular teeth were extracted. Group I received a complete osteotomy, whereas groups II and III received a partial osteotomy with preservation of the glossal cortical bones. The left mandible served as the experimental site for each group, and the right side served as the internal control. Groups I and II were sacrificed 3 months after the completion of distraction, whereas group III was sacrificed 6 months after the completion of distraction. Radiographs were taken. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometric results and compressive biomechanics of the distracted and control bone masses were examined for groups II and III (partial osteotomy group). RESULTS: The complete osteotomy group exhibited a larger distraction space initially; however, the distracted area showed a remarkable depression on the buccal-glossal side. In contrast, the partial osteotomy groups exhibited a nearly normal mandibular morphology. The bone mineral density, compressive strength, and elastic modulus were decreased in the distracted side compared with the control side 3 months after distraction. These 3 parameters increased in the distracted side 6 months after distraction, which did not differ significantly from those in the control side. CONCLUSIONS: Partial osteotomy with preservation of the glossal cortical bones is more suitable for alveolar ridge augmentation using the shape-memory alloy distraction device. The newly generated bone exhibited adequate strength, which can satisfy the requirements of subsequent implantation.