Hepatitis C Virus in Arab World: A State of Concern

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Tripoli Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine Tripoli, PO Box 82668, Tripoli, Libya.
The Scientific World Journal (Impact Factor: 1.22). 05/2012; 2012:719494. DOI: 10.1100/2012/719494
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus has been considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma. The prevalence of such virus varies greatly over the world. Arab world has a unique geography and consists over nineteen countries who share the same heritage and customs and do speak the same language. In this area, the epidemiology of hepatitis C is not well understandable. Hepatitis C virus was found to be endemic in Arabia. The serostatus of such virus was found to be variable among these countries with uniform patterns of genotypes. Such prevalence varies tremendously according to the risk factors involved. Blood and blood products, haemodialysis, intravenous, and percutaneous drug users, and occupational, habitual, and social behavior were found to be the important factors involved. Hepatitis C will have major social, economic, and even political burdens on such young and dynamic societies. Thus, strategies and clear policy of intervention are urgently needed to combat the consequences of HCV both regionally and at state level of each country.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background To meet the future challenges of infectious diseases and limit the spread of multidrug resistant microorganisms, a better understanding of published studies in the field of infectious diseases is needed. The objective of this study was to analyze the quantity and quality of research activity in the field of infectious diseases in Arab countries and compare it with that in non-Arab countries. Methods Documents published in Arab countries within the research category of ?infectious diseases? were extracted and analyzed using the Web of Science database. The data analyzed represent research productivity during the time interval between 1900 ? 2012. Results Worldwide, the total number of documents published in the field of infectious diseases up to 2012 was 227,188. A total of 2,408 documents in the field of infectious diseases were published in Arab countries, which represents 1.06% of worldwide research output. Research output from Arab countries in the field of infectious diseases was low for decades. However, approximately a five-fold increase was observed in the past decade. Arab countries ranked 56th to 218th on the standard competition ranking (SCR) in worldwide publications in the field of infectious diseases. Egypt, with a total publication of 464 (19.27%) documents ranked first among Arab countries, while Kuwait University was the most productive institution with a total of 158 (6.56%) documents. Average citation per document published in Arab countries was 13.25 and the h-index was 64. Tuberculosis (230; 9.55%), malaria (223; 9.26%), and hepatitis (189; 7.8%) were the top three infectious diseases studied as according to the retrieved documents. Conclusion The present data reveals that some Arab countries contribute significantly to the field of infectious diseases. However, Arab countries need to work harder to bridge the gap in this field. Compared with non-Arab countries in the Middle East, research output from Arab countries was high, but more efforts are needed to enhance the quality of this output. Future research in the field should be encouraged and correctly directed.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C has been considered to be the most commonly emerging viral Hepatitis worldwide with major universal devastating consequences. Every year, a round four million people are infected with the Hepatitis C Virus and over 150 million people are chronically infected and at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and/or liver cancer. More than 350 000 people die from Hepatitis C-related liver diseases every year. Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting primarily the liver caused by the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). The existence of Hepatitis C (originally “non-A non-B Hepatitis”) was postulated in the 1970s and proven in 1989.Hepatitis C infects only humans and chimpanzees [1]. Transmission of HCV has been changed immensely since its discovery, Blood and blood products was the primary mood of transmission particularly prior to 1992, though nowadays has been replaced by IUDs. Further it has been changed according the clinical status of infected individuals as the viral particles were confined to the serum and lymphocytes in acute and chronic cases of HCV, though in occult cases, the virus is not detectable with conventional testing but can be found with ultra-sensitive tests. Methods of transmission has been reflected considerably on the geo-epidemiology of HCV worldwide, in the developing countries where the prevalence of HCV is IUD is accounted for up to 90% of reported cases though in developing countries as they have the highest prevalence rates, blood, nosocomial and occupational transmission methods still taking the lead [2,3]. This chapter aims to high light the method of transmission of HCV and outlining the preventive measure to be taken to minimize the spread of Hepatitis C Virus.
    Hepatitis C Virus: Molecular Pathways and Treatments, 1 edited by Oumaima Stambouli, 02/2014; OMICS Group eBooks 731 Gull Ave, Foster City. CA 94404, USA.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Viral hemorrhagic fever has been associated with high mortality rate which brought serious concern for public health worldwide and prompted a sense of urgency to halt this infection. The clinical symptoms are very general and could be easily missed, consisting of onset of fever, myalgia, and general malaise accompanied by chills. In unstable countries of North Africa with fragile health services complicated with armed conflicts and population displacement, such infections could be easily confused with other local parasitic and viral diseases. Libya has the longest coast in North Africa facing the South European region. Emerging of Viral hemorrhagic fever in this region will pose an evolving risk to the European countries and thus worldwide. An outbreak of unidentified VHFs was reported in June/July 2014 among twenty three African patients from immigrants encamps in North West of Libya, twelve of them reported dead. The clinical and laboratory evidences strongly suggest VHF as the likely cause. Since then no more similar cases were reported till February 2015. With the arrival of viral hemorrhagic fevers in NorthWest of Libya, the South European countries is now at severe risk, then it is only a matter of time before it becomes apparent in developed countries. This review aims to highlight a recent spread of VHFs in North Africa in the light of political instability associated with massive immigration from the endemic areas of West African countries.
    Clinical and experimental pathology 02/2015; 5(2):7. DOI:10.4172/2161-0681.1000215

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Feb 17, 2015