Article

Hepatitis C Virus in Arab World: A State of Concern

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Tripoli Medical Centre, Faculty of Medicine Tripoli, PO Box 82668, Tripoli, Libya.
The Scientific World Journal (Impact Factor: 1.73). 05/2012; 2012:719494. DOI: 10.1100/2012/719494
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus has been considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma. The prevalence of such virus varies greatly over the world. Arab world has a unique geography and consists over nineteen countries who share the same heritage and customs and do speak the same language. In this area, the epidemiology of hepatitis C is not well understandable. Hepatitis C virus was found to be endemic in Arabia. The serostatus of such virus was found to be variable among these countries with uniform patterns of genotypes. Such prevalence varies tremendously according to the risk factors involved. Blood and blood products, haemodialysis, intravenous, and percutaneous drug users, and occupational, habitual, and social behavior were found to be the important factors involved. Hepatitis C will have major social, economic, and even political burdens on such young and dynamic societies. Thus, strategies and clear policy of intervention are urgently needed to combat the consequences of HCV both regionally and at state level of each country.

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    • "Hepatitis C virus is considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma [22]. In viral infection, TLR stimulation presents a double-edged sword: it is indeed essential for triggering innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens, but TLR over-activation is known to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and infectious diseases. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Hepatitis C virus is considered to be one of the most important devastating causes of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a pathogen-recognition receptor that is expressed on innate immune cells. It recognizes viral RNA which induces its activation with a subsequent increase in IFN-α transcription. It has been postulated that HCV may cause down regulation of these receptors as one of immune evading mechanisms that participate in viral persistence. The aim of the work Was to investigate the expression of TLR7 in peripheral blood of patients with chronic HCV infections and patients with HCC, comparing it with normal individuals, and correlating it with both serum levels of IFN-α and viral load. Results The results of this study showed a significant decrease in TLR7 expression in patients with chronic HCV and no detection at all in patients with HCC, in addition a significant negative correlation was observed between levels of TLR7expression and interferon α when compared to viral load. Conclusion Down regulation of TLR7 expression in HCV and HCC patients may contribute to the decrease of IFN-α and increase in viral load. These results raise the possibility that by targeting TLR7 with high affinity pharmacological stimulants may be able to control HCV infection by induction of IFN-α and direct activation of antiviral mechanisms in hepatocytes. Additionally, they provide insight about the potential use of TLR7 as a new set of molecular markers for prognosis and outcomes of chronic HCV infection and HCC.
    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics 08/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ejmhg.2014.07.003
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    • "Complications of HCV are expected to increase tremendously over the coming decades [2] [6]. This will place a heavy burden on healthcare systems. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C infection is a complex entity associated with sizable morbidity and mortality, with great social and economic consequences that put a heavy potential burden on healthcare systems allover the world. Despite the great improvement of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy and its high clinical efficacy, major influencing factors are still hindering and diminishing the effectiveness of hepatitis C treatment. This minimizes the quality of life of the infected patients and reduces the outcome of such therapy, particularly in certain groups of patients such as intravenous drug users and patients coinfected with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). A variety of factors were evolved either at patient individual level, healthcare providers, community surrounding levels, or healthcare setting systems. Analyzing and understanding these factors could help to improve HCV interventions and, thus, reduce the burden of such infection. The objectives of this paper were to highlight such factors and outline the holistic approaches that could be used to overcome such factors.
    The Scientific World Journal 12/2012; 2012:580216. DOI:10.1100/2012/580216 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major worldwide public health problem. Though several studies from Yemen have provided an estimate of the prevalence of this viral infection, there exist only few studies which reflect the status in the general population. Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C infection among general population in central region of Yemen. Methods. The study population comprised 2,379 apparently healthy subjects who were screened for hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Abs) status using ELISA quantitative technique. Seroprevalence rate of seropositive subjects was calculated and stratified by age, sex, educational level, and monthly income. Results. The study showed that out of 2,379 subjects, 31 (1.3%) were HCV Abs positive. Higher prevalence of HCV Abs was found among females, 24 (1.01%), than males, 7 (0.29%). The age specific prevalence rose from 00 (0.00%) in subjects aged ≤14 years to a maximum of 9 (0.38%) in subjects aged ≥55 years. The prevalence of HCV Abs was more prevalent in illiterate subjects and increased with decreasing monthly income. Conclusion. It was found that variables including age and educational level were significantly associated with HCV Ab positivity and not associated with gender and monthly income.
    Hepatitis research and treatment 12/2012; 2012:689726. DOI:10.1155/2012/689726
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