Roles of H2 uptake hydrogenases in Shigella flexneri acid tolerance.
ABSTRACT Hydrogenases play many roles in bacterial physiology, and use of H(2) by the uptake-type enzymes of animal pathogens is of particular interest. Hydrogenases have never been studied in the pathogen Shigella, so targeted mutant strains were individually generated in the two Shigella flexneri H(2)-uptake enzymes (Hya and Hyb) and in the H(2)-evolving enzyme (Hyc) to address their roles. Under anaerobic fermentative conditions, a Hya mutant strain (hya) was unable to oxidize H(2), while a Hyb mutant strain oxidized H(2) like the wild-type. A hyc strain oxidized more exogenously added hydrogen than the parent. Fluorescence ratio imaging with dye JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide) showed that the parent strain generated a membrane potential 15 times greater than hya. The hya mutant was also by far the most acid-sensitive strain, being even more acid-sensitive than a mutant strain in the known acid-combating glutamate-dependent acid-resistance pathway (GDAR pathway). In severe acid-challenge experiments, the addition of glutamate to hya restored survivability, and this ability was attributed in part to the GDAR system (removes intracellular protons) by mutant strain (e.g. hya/gadBC double mutant) analyses. However, mutant strain phenotypes indicated that a larger portion of the glutamate-rescued acid tolerance was independent of GadBC. The acid tolerance of the hya strains was aided by adding chloride ions to the growth medium. The whole-cell Hya enzyme became more active upon acid exposure (20 min), based on assays of hyc. Indeed, the very high rates of Shigella H(2) oxidation by Hya in acid can supply each cell with 2.4×10(8) protons min(-1). Electrons generated from Hya-mediated H(2) oxidation at the inner membrane likely counteract cytoplasmic positive charge stress, while abundant proton pools deposited periplasmically likely repel proton influx during severe acid stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Silas G Villas-Bôas[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The soil bacterium Mycobacterium smegmatis is able to scavenge the trace concentrations of H2 present in the atmosphere, but the physiological function and importance of this activity is not understood. We have shown that atmospheric H2 oxidation in this organism depends on two phylogenetically and kinetically distinct high-affinity hydrogenases, Hyd1 (MSMEG_2262-2263) and Hyd2 (MSMEG_2720-2719). In this study, we explored the effect of deleting Hyd2 on cellular physiology by comparing the viability, energetics, transcriptomes, and metabolomes of wild-type vs. Δhyd2 cells. The long-term survival of the Δhyd2 mutant was significantly reduced compared to the wild-type. The mutant additionally grew less efficiently in a range of conditions, most notably during metabolism of short-chain fatty acids; there was a twofold reduction in growth rate and growth yield of the Δhyd2 strain when acetate served as the sole carbon source. Hyd1 compensated for loss of Hyd2 when cells were grown in a high H2 atmosphere. Analysis of cellular parameters showed that Hyd2 was not necessary to generate the membrane potential, maintain intracellular pH homeostasis, or sustain redox balance. However, microarray analysis indicated that Δhyd2 cells were starved for reductant and compensated by rewiring central metabolism; transcripts encoding proteins responsible for oxidative decarboxylation pathways, the urea cycle, and ABC transporter-mediated import were significantly more abundant in the Δhyd2 mutant. Metabolome profiling consistently revealed an increase in intracellular amino acids in the Δhyd2 mutant. We propose that atmospheric H2 oxidation has two major roles in mycobacterial cells: to generate reductant during mixotrophic growth and to sustain the respiratory chain during dormancy.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103034. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiota features intricate metabolic interactions involving the breakdown and reuse of host- and diet-derived nutrients. The competition for these resources can limit pathogen growth. Nevertheless, some enteropathogenic bacteria can invade this niche through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. Using a mouse model for Salmonella diarrhea and a transposon mutant screen, we discovered that initial growth of Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Tm) in the unperturbed gut is powered by S. Tm hyb hydrogenase, which facilitates consumption of hydrogen (H2), a central intermediate of microbiota metabolism. In competitive infection experiments, a hyb mutant exhibited reduced growth early in infection compared to wild-type S. Tm, but these differences were lost upon antibiotic-mediated disruption of the host microbiota. Additionally, introducing H2-consuming bacteria into the microbiota interfered with hyb-dependent S. Tm growth. Thus, H2 is an Achilles' heel of microbiota metabolism that can be subverted by pathogens and might offer opportunities to prevent infection.Cell host & microbe 12/2013; 14(6):641-651. · 13.02 Impact Factor