Roles of H2 uptake hydrogenases in Shigella flexneri acid tolerance.
ABSTRACT Hydrogenases play many roles in bacterial physiology, and use of H(2) by the uptake-type enzymes of animal pathogens is of particular interest. Hydrogenases have never been studied in the pathogen Shigella, so targeted mutant strains were individually generated in the two Shigella flexneri H(2)-uptake enzymes (Hya and Hyb) and in the H(2)-evolving enzyme (Hyc) to address their roles. Under anaerobic fermentative conditions, a Hya mutant strain (hya) was unable to oxidize H(2), while a Hyb mutant strain oxidized H(2) like the wild-type. A hyc strain oxidized more exogenously added hydrogen than the parent. Fluorescence ratio imaging with dye JC-1 (5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide) showed that the parent strain generated a membrane potential 15 times greater than hya. The hya mutant was also by far the most acid-sensitive strain, being even more acid-sensitive than a mutant strain in the known acid-combating glutamate-dependent acid-resistance pathway (GDAR pathway). In severe acid-challenge experiments, the addition of glutamate to hya restored survivability, and this ability was attributed in part to the GDAR system (removes intracellular protons) by mutant strain (e.g. hya/gadBC double mutant) analyses. However, mutant strain phenotypes indicated that a larger portion of the glutamate-rescued acid tolerance was independent of GadBC. The acid tolerance of the hya strains was aided by adding chloride ions to the growth medium. The whole-cell Hya enzyme became more active upon acid exposure (20 min), based on assays of hyc. Indeed, the very high rates of Shigella H(2) oxidation by Hya in acid can supply each cell with 2.4×10(8) protons min(-1). Electrons generated from Hya-mediated H(2) oxidation at the inner membrane likely counteract cytoplasmic positive charge stress, while abundant proton pools deposited periplasmically likely repel proton influx during severe acid stress.
- SourceAvailable from: Charles W Kaspar[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: When tetracycline was present, tetA(C) reduced acid tolerance, suppressed rpoS expression, and increased the concentration of total soluble proteins in stationary-phase Escherichia coli. The suppression of acid tolerance was reversed by 85 mM sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions but not by 85 mM sucrose. Implications for using TetA(C) are discussed.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2006; 72(6):4472-4. · 3.68 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli can perform at least two modes of anaerobic hydrogen metabolism and expresses at least two types of hydrogenase activity. Respiratory hydrogen oxidation is catalysed by two 'uptake' hydrogenase isoenzymes, hydrogenase -1 and -2 (Hyd-1 and -2), and fermentative hydrogen production is catalysed by Hyd-3. Harnessing and enhancing the metabolic capability of E. coli to perform anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation is therefore an attractive approach for bio-hydrogen production from sugars. In this work, the effects of genetic modification of the genes encoding the uptake hydrogenases, as well as the importance of preculture conditions, on hydrogen production and fermentation balance were examined. In suspensions of resting cells pregrown aerobically with formate, deletions in Hyd-3 abolished hydrogen production, whereas the deletion of both uptake hydrogenases improved hydrogen production by 37% over the parent strain. Under fermentative conditions, respiratory H2 uptake activity was absent in strains lacking Hyd-2. The effect of a deletion in hycA on H2 production was found to be dependent upon environmental conditions, but H2 uptake was not significantly affected by this mutation.FEMS Microbiology Letters 02/2008; 278(1):48-55. · 2.05 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined for differences in extreme acid survival strategies. A surprising degree of variety was found between three related genera. The minimum growth pH of Salmonella typhimurium was shown to be significantly lower (pH 4.0) than that of either Escherichia coli (pH 4.4) or Shigella flexneri (pH 4.8), yet E. coli and S. flexneri both survive exposure to lower pH levels (2 to 2.5) than S. typhimurium (pH 3.0) in complex medium. S. typhimurium and E. coli but not S. flexneri expressed low-pH-inducible log-phase and stationary-phase acid tolerance response (ATR) systems that function in minimal or complex medium to protect cells to pH 3.0. All of the organisms also expressed a pH-independent general stress resistance system that contributed to acid survival during stationary phase. E. coli and S. flexneri possessed several acid survival systems (termed acid resistance [AR]) that were not demonstrable in S. typhimurium. These additional AR systems protected cells to pH 2.5 and below but required supplementation of minimal medium for either induction or function. One acid-inducible AR system required oxidative growth in complex medium for expression but successfully protected cells to pH 2.5 in unsupplemented minimal medium, while two other AR systems important for fermentatively grown cells required the addition of either glutamate or arginine during pH 2.5 acid challenge. The arginine AR system was only observed in E. coli and required stationary-phase induction in acidified complex medium. The product of the adi locus, arginine decarboxylase, was responsible for arginine-based acid survival.Journal of Bacteriology 08/1995; 177(14):4097-104. · 3.19 Impact Factor