Alterations in sulfated chondroitin glycosaminoglycans following controlled cortical impact injury in mice.
ABSTRACT Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) play a pivotal role in many neuronal growth mechanisms including axon guidance and the modulation of repair processes following injury to the spinal cord or brain. Many actions of CSPGs in the central nervous system (CNS) are governed by the specific sulfation pattern on the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains attached to CSPG core proteins. To elucidate the role of CSPGs and sulfated GAG chains following traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cortical impact injury of mild to moderate severity was performed over the left sensory motor cortex in mice. Using immunoblotting and immunostaining, we found that TBI resulted in an increase in the CSPGs neurocan and NG2 expression in a tight band surrounding the injury core, which overlapped with the presence of 4-sulfated CS GAGs but not with 6-sulfated GAGs. This increase was observed as early as 7 days post injury (dpi), and persisted for up to 28 dpi. Labeling with markers against microglia/macrophages, NG2+ cells, fibroblasts, and astrocytes showed that these cells were all localized in the area, suggesting multiple origins of chondroitin-4-sulfate increase. TBI also caused a decrease in the expression of aggrecan and phosphacan in the pericontusional cortex with a concomitant reduction in the number of perineuronal nets. In summary, we describe a dual response in CSPGs whereby they may be actively involved in complex repair processes following TBI.
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ABSTRACT: The regenerative capacity of the central nervous system must be optimized to promote repair following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may differ with the site and form of damage. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) maintains neural stem cells and promotes oligodendrogenesis. We examined whether Shh signaling contributes to neuroblast (doublecortin) or oligodendrocyte progenitor (neural/glial antigen 2 [NG2]) responses in two distinct TBI models. Shh-responsive cells were heritably labeled in vivo using Gli1-CreER(T2);R26-YFP bitransgenic mice with tamoxifen administration on Days 2 and 3 post-TBI. Injury to the cerebral cortex was produced with mild controlled cortical impact. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) cells decreased in cortical lesions. Total YFP cells increased in the subventricular zone (SVZ), indicating Shh pathway activation in SVZ cells, including doublecortin-labeled neuroblasts. The alternate TBI model produced traumatic axonal injury in the corpus callosum. YFP cells decreased within the SVZ and were rarely double labeled as NG2 progenitors. NG2 progenitors increased in the cortex, with a similar pattern in the corpus callosum. To further test the potential of NG2 progenitors to respond through Shh signaling, Smoothened agonist was microinjected into the corpus callosum to activate Shh signaling. YFP cells and NG2 progenitors increased in the SVZ but were not double labeled. This result indicates that either direct Smoothened activation in NG2 progenitors does not signal through Gli1 or that Smoothened agonist acts indirectly to increase NG2 progenitors. Therefore, in all conditions, neuroblasts exhibited differential Shh pathway utilization compared with oligodendrocyte progenitors. Notably, cortical versus white matter damage from TBI produced opposite responses of Shh-activated cells within the SVZ.ASN Neuro 07/2014; 6(5). · 4.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are widely expressed in the normal central nervous system, serving as guidance cues during development and modulating synaptic connections in the adult. With injury or disease, an increase in CSPG expression is commonly observed close to lesioned areas. However, these CSPG deposits form a substantial barrier to regeneration and are largely responsible for the inability to repair damage in the brain and spinal cord. This review discusses the role of CSPGs as inhibitors, the role of inflammation in stimulating CSPG expression near site of injury, and therapeutic strategies for overcoming the inhibitory effects of CSPGs and creating an environment conducive to nerve regeneration.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:845323. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the past two decades, many investigators have reported how extracellular matrix molecules act to regulate neuroplasticity. The majority of these studies involve proteins which are targets of matrix metalloproteinases. Importantly, these enzyme/substrate interactions can regulate degenerative and regenerative phases of synaptic plasticity, directing axonal and dendritic reorganization after brain insult. The present review first summarizes literature support for the prominent role of matrix metalloproteinases during neuroregeneration, followed by a discussion of data contrasting adaptive and maladaptive neuroplasticity that reveals time-dependent metalloproteinase/substrate regulation of postinjury synaptic recovery. The potential for these enzymes to serve as therapeutic targets for enhanced neuroplasticity after brain injury is illustrated with experiments demonstrating that metalloproteinase inhibitors can alter adaptive and maladaptive outcome. Finally, the complexity of metalloproteinase role in reactive synaptogenesis is revealed in new studies showing how these enzymes interact with immune molecules to mediate cellular response in the local regenerative environment, and are regulated by novel binding partners in the brain extracellular matrix. Together, these different examples show the complexity with which metalloproteinases are integrated into the process of neuroregeneration, and point to a promising new angle for future studies exploring how to facilitate brain plasticity.Neural Regeneration Research 02/2014; 9(4):362-76. · 0.23 Impact Factor