Heritability of functioning in families with schizophrenia in relation to neurocognition
ABSTRACT The role of daily functioning is an integral part of the schizophrenia (SZ) phenotype and deficits in this trait appear to be present in both affected persons and some unaffected relatives; hence we have examined its heritability in our cohort of African American schizophrenia families. There is now ample evidence that deficits in cognitive function can impact family members who are not themselves diagnosed with SZ; there is some, but less evidence that role function behaves likewise. We evaluate whether role function tends to "run in families" who were ascertained because they contain an African American proband diagnosed with SZ.
We analyzed heritability for selected traits related to daily function, employment, living situation, marital status, and Global Assessment Scale (GAS) score; modeling age, gender, along with neurocognition and diagnosis as covariates in a family based African-American sample (N=2488 individuals including 979 probands).
Measures of role function were heritable in models including neurocognitive domains and factor analytically derived neurocognitive summary scores and demographics as covariates; the most heritable estimate was obtained from the current GAS scores (h2=0.72). Neurocognition was not a significant contributor to heritability of role function.
Commonly assessed demographic and clinical indicators of functioning are heritable with a global rating of functioning being the most heritable. Measures of neurocognition had little impact on heritability of functioning overall. The family covariance for functioning, reflected in its heritability, supports the concept that interventions at the family level, such as evidenced-based family psychoeducation may be beneficial in schizophrenia.
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ABSTRACT: Cu-to-Cu interconnects were achieved by pressureless low temperature sintering of Ag nanoparticles for electronic packaging. Ag nanoparticles could be sintered so long as the chemical bonds by which organic shells connected with Ag nanoparticles were broken with no necessity that organic shells completely decomposed, which provided a way to lower bonding temperature. The pinecone-like recrystallization morphology of sintering Ag nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscopy, which resulted from the residuals of organic shells by sintering process. The thermal conductivity of sintered Ag nanoparticles was affected strongly by the recrystallization morphology because of grain boundary scattering effect. The shear strengths of joints reached 17-25 MPa at temperatures ranging from 150 °C to 200 °C.Electronic Materials and Packaging (EMAP), 2012 14th International Conference on; 01/2012
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Schizophrenia (SZ) is a common disorder that runs in families. It has a relatively high heritability, i.e. inherited factors account for the major proportion of its etiology. The high heritability has motivated gene mapping studies that have improved in sophistication through the past two decades. Belying earlier expectations, it is now becoming increasingly clear that the cause of SZ does not reside in a single mutation, or even in a single gene. Rather, there are multiple DNA variants, not all of which have been identified. Additional risk may be conferred by interactions between individual DNA variants, as well as 'gene-environment' interactions. We review studies that have accounted for a fraction of the heritability. Their relevance to the practising clinician is discussed. We propose that continuing research in DNA variation, in conjunction with rapid ongoing advances in allied fields, will yield dividends from the perspective of diagnosis, treatment prediction through pharmacogenetics, and rational treatment through discoveries in pathogenesis.International Review of Psychiatry 10/2012; 24(5):393-404. DOI:10.3109/09540261.2012.709178 · 1.80 Impact Factor