Ergocalciferol from Mushrooms or Supplements Consumed with a Standard Meal Increases 25-Hydroxyergocalciferol but Decreases 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol in the Serum of Healthy Adults
ABSTRACT Few foods contain ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. Treatment of mushrooms with UV light increases ergocalciferol content and could provide a dietary source of vitamin D. We evaluated the impact of consuming UV-treated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the vitamin D status of healthy adults. Thirty-eight volunteers were randomized to 4 treatments consumed with a standard meal for 6 wk: the control (C) group received untreated mushrooms providing 0.85 μg/d ergocalciferol (n = 10); groups M1 and M2 received UV-treated mushrooms providing 8.8 (n = 10) and 17.1 μg/d (n = 9), respectively; and the supplement (S) group received purified ergocalciferol plus untreated mushrooms, providing a total of 28.2 μg/d (n = 9). Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2] were 83 ± 38 and 2.4 ± 2.0 nmol/L, respectively, at baseline (mean ± SD). At wk 6, 25(OH)D2 had increased and was higher in all treatment groups than in the C group, whereas 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] had decreased and was lower in the M2 and S groups than in the C group. Increases in 25(OH)D2 for groups C, M1, M2, and S were 1.2 ± 5.2, 13.8 ± 7.3, 12.7 ± 3.7, and 32.8 ± 3.3 nmol/L and decreases in 25(OH)D3 were -3.9 ± 16.3, -10.4 ± 6.4, -20.6 ± 14.6, and -29.5 ± 15.9 nmol/L, respectively. Concentrations did not change in group C. In summary, ergocalciferol was absorbed and metabolized to 25(OH)D2 but did not affect vitamin D status, because 25(OH)D3 decreased proportionally.
Article: Bone nutrients for vegetarians[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The process of bone mineralization and resorption is complex and is affected by numerous factors, including dietary constituents. Although some dietary factors involved in bone health, such as calcium and vitamin D, are typically associated with dairy products, plant-based sources of these nutrients also supply other key nutrients involved in bone maintenance. Some research suggests that vegetarian diets, especially vegan diets, are associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this does not appear to be clinically significant. Vegan diets are not associated with an increased fracture risk if calcium intake is adequate. Dietary factors in plant-based diets that support the development and maintenance of bone mass include calcium, vitamin D, protein, potassium, and soy isoflavones. Other factors present in plant-based diets such as oxalic acid and phytic acid can potentially interfere with absorption and retention of calcium and thereby have a negative effect on BMD. Impaired vitamin B-12 status also negatively affects BMD. The role of protein in calcium balance is multifaceted. Overall, calcium and protein intakes in accord with Dietary Reference Intakes are recommended for vegetarians, including vegans. Fortified foods are often helpful in meeting recommendations for calcium and vitamin D. Plant-based diets can provide adequate amounts of key nutrients for bone health.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2014; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.071423 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Based on the growing evidence of risk reduction from fresh fruit and vegetable consumption and an inverse relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we determined the benefits of regularly consuming vitamin D-enriched mushrooms in a prediabetic cohort. Exposing edible mushrooms to ultraviolet B (UVB) light increases vitamin D2 (D2) and raises serum 25OHD2 in healthy young adults; however, their benefit to deficient prediabetics and glucose metabolism remains untested.Subjects/methods:Forty-three prediabetic, D-deficient adults (25OHD≤20 ng/ml), BMI>25 were randomized to four groups consuming daily entrées containing 100 g fresh sliced cooked mushrooms prepared by a chef for 16 weeks. Two groups were fed UVB-treated mushrooms initially containing: 600 IU D2 or 4000 IU D2; each one also received one capsule of placebo daily. Two control groups were fed untreated mushrooms and D3 dietary supplements at two label doses: 600 IU D3 and 4000 IU D3. D2 and D3 content were analyzed in mushrooms, before and after cooking and in over-the-counter supplements.Results:After 16 weeks, both D2-UVB-mushroom entrée doses, which were significantly lower after cooking, produced modest or no increases in 25OHD2 or total 25OHD relative to the positive control subjects who actually consumed about 1242 and 7320 IU per day of D3 (higher than stated on the label).Conclusions:Unanticipated D2 cooking loss from fresh UVB mushrooms and probable low absorption and/or hydroxylation may explain the smaller increase in 25OHD2 in our prediabetic overweight/obese cohort compared with past findings in younger, healthy subjects. Moreover, no dose or vitamin D source was associated with modifying T2D risk factors.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 August 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2014; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.157 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent throughout the world, and growing evidence supports a requirement for optimal vitamin D levels for the healthy developing and adult brain. Vitamin D has important roles in proliferation and differentiation, calcium signaling within the brain, and neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it may also alter neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Recent experimental studies highlight the impact that vitamin D deficiency has on brain function in health and disease. In addition, results from recent animal studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency during adulthood may exacerbate underlying brain disorders and/or worsen recovery from brain stressors. An increasing number of epidemiological studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Vitamin D supplementation is readily available and affordable, and this review highlights the need for further research.Annual Review of Nutrition 07/2014; 34:117-141. DOI:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071813-105557 · 10.46 Impact Factor