Ergocalciferol from Mushrooms or Supplements Consumed with a Standard Meal Increases 25-Hydroxyergocalciferol but Decreases 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol in the Serum of Healthy Adults
ABSTRACT Few foods contain ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. Treatment of mushrooms with UV light increases ergocalciferol content and could provide a dietary source of vitamin D. We evaluated the impact of consuming UV-treated white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the vitamin D status of healthy adults. Thirty-eight volunteers were randomized to 4 treatments consumed with a standard meal for 6 wk: the control (C) group received untreated mushrooms providing 0.85 μg/d ergocalciferol (n = 10); groups M1 and M2 received UV-treated mushrooms providing 8.8 (n = 10) and 17.1 μg/d (n = 9), respectively; and the supplement (S) group received purified ergocalciferol plus untreated mushrooms, providing a total of 28.2 μg/d (n = 9). Serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 25-hydroxyergocalciferol [25(OH)D2] were 83 ± 38 and 2.4 ± 2.0 nmol/L, respectively, at baseline (mean ± SD). At wk 6, 25(OH)D2 had increased and was higher in all treatment groups than in the C group, whereas 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] had decreased and was lower in the M2 and S groups than in the C group. Increases in 25(OH)D2 for groups C, M1, M2, and S were 1.2 ± 5.2, 13.8 ± 7.3, 12.7 ± 3.7, and 32.8 ± 3.3 nmol/L and decreases in 25(OH)D3 were -3.9 ± 16.3, -10.4 ± 6.4, -20.6 ± 14.6, and -29.5 ± 15.9 nmol/L, respectively. Concentrations did not change in group C. In summary, ergocalciferol was absorbed and metabolized to 25(OH)D2 but did not affect vitamin D status, because 25(OH)D3 decreased proportionally.
- SourceAvailable from: Jonathan C.Y. TangAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2012; 96(5):1152-3. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.046110 · 6.92 Impact Factor
- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11/2012; 96(5):1150-1. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.112.046060 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mushrooms exposed to sunlight or UV radiation are an excellent source of dietary vitamin D2 because they contain high concentrations of the vitamin D precursor, provitamin D2. When mushrooms are exposed to UV radiation, provitamin D2 is converted to previtamin D2. Once formed, previtamin D2 rapidly isomerizes to vitamin D2 in a similar manner that previtamin D3 isomerizes to vitamin D3 in human skin. Continued exposure of mushrooms to UV radiation results in the production of lumisterol2 and tachysterol2. It was observed that the concentration of lumisterol2 remained constant in white button mushrooms for up to 24 h after being produced. However, in the same mushroom tachysterol2 concentrations rapidly declined and were undetectable after 24 h. Shiitake mushrooms not only produce vitamin D2 but also produce vitamin D3 and vitamin D4. A study of the bioavailability of vitamin D2 in mushrooms compared with the bioavailability of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement revealed that ingestion of 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 in mushrooms is as effective as ingesting 2000 IUs of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3 in a supplement in raising and maintaining blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a marker for a person's vitamin D status. Therefore, mushrooms are a rich source of vitamin D2 that when consumed can increase and maintain blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a healthy range. Ingestion of mushrooms may also provide the consumer with a source of vitamin D3 and vitamin D4.01/2013; 5(1):165-76. DOI:10.4161/derm.23321