Proteome dynamics in primary target organ of infectious bursal disease virus.
ABSTRACT Viruses induce dramatic changes in target tissue during pathogenesis, including host cellular responses that either limit or support the pathogen. The infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) targets primarily the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens, causing severe immunodeficiency. Here, we characterized the cellular proteome changes of the BF caused by IBDV replication in vivo using 2DE followed MALDI-TOF MS identification. Comparative analysis of multiple 2DE gels revealed that the majority of protein expression changes appeared between 24 and 96 h after IBDV infection. MS identified 54 altered cell proteins, 12 of which were notably upregulated by IBDV infection. Meanwhile, the other 42 cellular proteins were considerably suppressed by IBDV infection and are involved in protein degradation, energy metabolism, stress response, host macromolecular biosynthesis, and transport process. The upregulation of β-actin and downregulation of dynamin during IBDV infection were also confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. These altered protein expressions provide a response profile of chicken BF to virulent IBDV infection. Further functional study on these altered proteins may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of virulent IBDV infection and to new potential therapeutic targets.
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ABSTRACT: Cross-species transmissions of swine influenza viruses (SIV) raise great public health concerns. Here, subcellular proteomic profiles of human A549 cells inoculated with H3N2 subtype SIV were used to characterize dynamic cellular responses to infection. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, 27 differentially expressed (13 up-regulated, 14 down-regulated) cytoplasmic proteins and 20 differentially expressed (13 up-regulated, 7 down-regulated) nuclear proteins were identified. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that these differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in cell death, stress response, lipid metabolism, cell signaling and RNA post-transcriptional modifications. Moreover 25 corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were quantitated by real time RT-PCR to examine the transcriptional profiles between mock- and virus-infected A549 cells. Western blot analysis confirmed that changes in abundance of identified cellular proteins hnRNP U, hnRNP C, ALDH1A1, WARS, IFI35 and HSPB1 in H3N2 SIV-infected cells were consistent with results of 2-DE analysis. By confocal microscopy, nucleus-to-cytoplasm translocation of hnRNP C and colocalization between the viral protein NS1 and hnRNP C as well as NMI were observed upon infection. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that cellular proteins altered during infection were grouped mainly into NFκB and interferon signaling networks. Collectively, these identified subcellular constituents provide an important framework for understanding host/SIV interactions and underlying mechanisms of SIV cross-species infection and pathogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Proteomics 09/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Megalocytivirus is an important fish pathogen with a broad host range that includes turbot. In this study, proteomic analysis was conducted to examine turbot proteins modulated in expression by megalocytivirus infection. Thirty five proteins from spleen were identified to be differentially expressed at 2days post-viral infection (dpi) and 7 dpi. Three upregulated proteins, i.e. heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), Mx protein, and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF), were further analyzed for potential antiviral effect. For this purpose, turbot were administered separately with the plasmids pHsp70, pMx, and pNKEF, which express Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF respectively, before megalocytivirus infection. Viral dissemination and propagation in spleen were subsequently determined. The results showed that the viral loads in fish administered with pNKEF were significantly reduced. To examine the potential of Hsp70, Mx, and NKEF as immunological adjuvant, turbot were immunized with a DNA vaccine in the presence of pHsp70, pMx, or pNKEF. Subsequent analysis showed that the presence of pNKEF and pHsp70, but not pMx, significantly reduced viral infection and enhanced fish survival. Taken together, these results indicate that NKEF exhibits antiviral property against megalocytivirus, and that both NKEF and Hsp70 may be used in DNA vaccine-based control of megalocytivirus infection. Biological significance This study provides the first proteomic picture of turbot in response to megalocytivirus infection. We demonstrated that megalocytivirus infection modulates the expression of turbot proteins associated with various cellular functions, and that one of the upregulated proteins, NKEF, exhibits antiviral effect when overexpressed in vivo, while another upregulated protein, Hsp70, exhibits adjuvant effect when co-immunized with a DNA vaccine. These results add molecular insights into turbot immune response induced by megalocytivirus and provide candidate proteins with application potentials in the control of megalocytivirus-associated disease.Journal of proteomics 08/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Avian reovirus (ARV) is a member of the Orthoreovirus genus in the Reoviridae family. It is the etiological agent of several diseases, among which viral arthritis and malabsorption syndrome are the most commercially important, causing considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. Although a small but increasing number of reports have characterized some aspects of ARV infection, global changes in protein expression in ARV-infected host cells have not been examined. The current study used a proteomics approach to obtain a comprehensive view of changes in protein levels in host cells upon infection by ARV. The proteomics profiles of DF-1 chicken fibroblast cells infected with ARV strain S1133 were analyzed by two-dimensional differential-image gel electrophoresis. The majority of protein expression changes (≥1.5 fold, p<0.05) occurred at 72 h post-infection. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identified 51 proteins with differential expression levels, including 25 that were upregulated during ARV infection and 26 that were downregulated. These proteins were divided into eight groups according to biological function: signal transduction, stress response, RNA processing, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton organization. They were further examined by immunoblotting to validate the observed alterations in protein expression. This is the first report of a time-course proteomic analysis of ARV-infected host cells. Notably, all identified proteins involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were downregulated in infected cells, whereas proteins involved in DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and energy production pathways were upregulated. In addition, other differentially expressed proteins were linked with the cytoskeleton, metabolism, redox regulation, and stress response. These proteomics data provide valuable information about host cell responses to ARV infection and will facilitate further studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying ARV pathogenesis.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e92154. · 3.53 Impact Factor