Influence of nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation: designing an appropriate nanobiointerface.

Department of Endocrinology, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
International Journal of Nanomedicine (Impact Factor: 4.2). 01/2012; 7:2211-25. DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S29975
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During the last decade, due to advances in functionalization chemistry, novel nanobiomaterials with applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been developed. These novel materials with their unique physical and chemical properties are bioactive hierarchical structures that hold great promise for future development of human tissues. Thus, various nanomaterials are currently being intensively explored in the directed differentiation of stem cells, the design of novel bioactive scaffolds, and new research avenues towards tissue regeneration. This paper illustrates the latest achievements in the applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine.

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    ABSTRACT: Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells responsible for the growth, homeostasis and repair of many tissues. The maintenance and survival of SCs is strongly influenced by several stimuli from the local microenvironment. The majority of signaling molecules interact with SCs at the nanoscale level. Therefore, scaffolds with surface nanostructures have potential applications for SCs and in the field of regenerative medicine. Although some strategies have already reached the field of cell biology, strategies based on modification at nanoscale level are new players in the fields of SCs and tissue regeneration. The introduction of the possibility to perform such modifications to these fields is probably due to increasing improvements in nanomaterials for biomedical applications, as well as new insights into SC biology. The aim of the present review is to exhibit the most recent applications of nanostructured materials that drive the commitment of adult SCs for potential clinical applications.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: Nanoparticles are easier to pass through cell membranes, and they are considered to be the ideal biocompatible and mechanically stable platforms for supporting stem cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and graphene (GR) on the dopamine neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Materials & methods: GO was prepared according to a modified Hummers method. GR was synthesized by reduction of GO via l-ascorbic acid as a reductant in an aqueous solution at room temperature. CNTs were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method. ESCs were differentiated by a stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) method after 10 days coculture with PA6 cells. The dopamine neural differentiation of the ESCs-GFP was examined by immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. Results: We found that only GO could effectively promote dopamine neuron differentiation after induction of SDIA and further enhance dopamine neuron-related gene expression compared with cells treated with no nanoparticle control, and the other two nanoparticles (CNTs and GR). Conclusion: These findings suggest that GO is a promising nanomaterial-based technical platform to effectively enhance dopamine neural differentiation of ESCs, which can be potentially applied for cell transplantation therapy. Original submitted 22 April 2013; Revised submitted 13 October 2013.
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